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Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) and is produced and released mainly from the stomach. It was recently demonstrated that ghrelin can function as a neuroprotective factor by inhibiting apoptotic pathways. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) causes nigrostriatal dopaminergic(More)
Recent studies on Alzheimer's disease (AD) have focused on soluble oligomeric forms of amyloid-beta (Aβ oligomer, AβO) that are directly associated with AD-related pathologies, such as cognitive decline, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation. Donepezil is a well-known anti-dementia agent that increases acetylcholine levels through inhibition of(More)
Cyperi rhizoma, the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus L. (Family Cyperaceae), is a well-known functional food and traditional herbal medicine in Korea. It has been reported that Cyperi rhizoma has antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities that play a major role in protection of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present(More)
Fruits rich in phytochemicals have been shown to improve memory by protecting or enhancing neuronal functions mediated by neurotrophic factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF), in the hippocampus. Mori Fructus (Morus alba L., Moraceae), also called mulberry, is used as a food, dietary supplement and an anti-ageing agent in traditional Oriental medicine.(More)
Recently, increased attention has been directed towards medicinal extracts as potential new drug candidates for dementia. Ginger has long been used as an important ingredient in cooking and traditional herbal medicine. In particular, ginger has been known to have disease-modifying effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is no evidence of which(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder and is the most common cause of progressive dementia in aging. Research on AD therapy has been partly successful in terms of developing symptomatic treatments, but there have been a number of failures with regard to developing disease-modifying therapies. The pathogenesis of AD remains unclear(More)
BACKGROUND Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD), in which insulin signaling pathway may also be implicated because 50-80% of PD patients exhibited metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and its toxic metabolite,(More)
Acacetin (5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone), a constituent of flavone naturally present in plants, has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Neuroinflammation is thought to be one of the major pathological mechanisms responsible for Parkinson's disease (PD), and has been a primary target in the development of treatment for PD. In the present study,(More)
Microglia-mediated inflammation is a major pathological mechanism contributing to Alzheimer's disease (AD), and has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target. Chunghyuldan (CHD; Qingxue-dan in Chinese and Daio-Orengedokuto in Japanese) possesses wide-ranging biological effects, including anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-stroke, anti-inflammatory, and(More)
AIM OF THE STUDY Polygalae radix, the root of Polygala tenuifolia Willd, has commonly been used for the treatment of amnesia and anxiety in traditional Korean medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate its neuroprotective effects and possible mechanisms of action in models of Parkinson's disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study utilized a(More)