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We have collected a set of 347 proteins that are found in eukaryotic cells but have no significant homology to proteins in Archaea and Bacteria. We call these proteins eukaryotic signature proteins (ESPs). The dominant hypothesis for the formation of the eukaryotic cell is that it is a fusion of an archaeon with a bacterium. If this hypothesis is accepted(More)
We propose a computational and theoretical framework for analyzing rapid coevolutionary dynamics of bacteriophage and bacteria in their ecological context. Bacteriophage enter host cells via membrane-bound surface receptors often responsible for nutrient uptake. As such, a selective pressure will exist for the bacteria to modify its receptor configuration(More)
The Cilium, the Nucleus and the Mitochondrion are three important organelles whose evolutionary histories are intimately related to the evolution and origin of the eukaryotic cell. The cilium is involved in motility and sensory transduction. The cilium is only found in the eukaryotic cells. Here we show that eight gene duplications prior to the last common(More)
The question of protein homology versus analogy arises when proteins share a common function or a common structural fold without any statistically significant amino acid sequence similarity. Even though two or more proteins do not have similar sequences but share a common fold and the same or closely related function, they are assumed to be homologs,(More)
BACKGROUND The origin and early evolution of the active site of the ribosome can be elucidated through an analysis of the ribosomal proteins' taxonomic block structures and their RNA interactions. Comparison between the two subunits, exploiting the detailed three-dimensional structures of the bacterial and archaeal ribosomes, is especially informative. (More)
During Proterozoic time, Earth experienced two intervals with one or more episodes of low-latitude glaciation, which are probable "Snowball Earth" events. Although the severity of the historical glaciations is debated, theoretical "hard Snowball" conditions are associated with the nearly complete shutdown of the hydrological cycle. We show here that, during(More)
BACKGROUND This paper is an attempt to trace the evolution of the ribosome through the evolution of the universal P-loop GTPases that are involved with the ribosome in translation and with the attachment of the ribosome to the membrane. The GTPases involved in translation in Bacteria/Archaea are the elongation factors EFTu/EF1, the initiation factors(More)
Amino acid sequence alignments of orthologous ribosomal proteins found in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryota display, relative to one another, an unusual segment or block structure, with major evolutionary implications. Within each of the prokaryotic phylodomains the sequences exhibit substantial similarity, but cross-domain alignments break up into (a)(More)