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The Cilium, the Nucleus and the Mitochondrion are three important organelles whose evolutionary histories are intimately related to the evolution and origin of the eukaryotic cell. The cilium is involved in motility and sensory transduction. The cilium is only found in the eukaryotic cells. Here we show that eight gene duplications prior to the last common(More)
BACKGROUND The origin and early evolution of the active site of the ribosome can be elucidated through an analysis of the ribosomal proteins' taxonomic block structures and their RNA interactions. Comparison between the two subunits, exploiting the detailed three-dimensional structures of the bacterial and archaeal ribosomes, is especially informative. (More)
During Proterozoic time, Earth experienced two intervals with one or more episodes of low-latitude glaciation, which are probable "Snowball Earth" events. Although the severity of the historical glaciations is debated, theoretical "hard Snowball" conditions are associated with the nearly complete shutdown of the hydrological cycle. We show here that, during(More)
BACKGROUND This paper is an attempt to trace the evolution of the ribosome through the evolution of the universal P-loop GTPases that are involved with the ribosome in translation and with the attachment of the ribosome to the membrane. The GTPases involved in translation in Bacteria/Archaea are the elongation factors EFTu/EF1, the initiation factors(More)
An inhomogeneous cell ular automaton is considered consisting of two two-dimensional planes, one of which contains t he t ran-sition functions or programs and the other the evolving d ata. Wi th a two-level hierarchy, basic experiments are performed with que nched and a nnealed XOR and AND functions. These fu nct ions were d is-t rib ut ed both at random a(More)
The potential role of clay minerals in the abiotic origin of life has been the subject of ongoing debate for the past several decades. At issue are the clay minerals found in a class of meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites. These clay minerals are the product of aqueous alteration of anhydrous mineral phases, such as olivine and orthopyroxene, that(More)
Phosphate is essential for all living systems, serving as a building block of genetic and metabolic machinery. However, it is unclear how phosphate could have assumed these central roles on primordial Earth, given its poor geochemical accessibility. We used systems biology approaches to explore the alternative hypothesis that a protometabolism could have(More)
How primordial metabolic networks such as the reverse tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle and clay mineral catalysts coevolved remains a mystery in the puzzle to understand the origin of life. While prebiotic reactions from the rTCA cycle were accomplished via photochemistry on semiconductor minerals, the synthesis of clays was demonstrated at low temperature(More)