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This study took advantage of the subsecond temporal resolution of ERPs to investigate mechanisms underlying age- and performance-related differences in working memory. Young and old subjects participated in a verbal n-back task with three levels of difficulty. Each group was divided into high and low performers based on accuracy under the 2-back condition.(More)
Decline in episodic memory is a common feature of healthy aging. Event-related potential (ERP) studies in young adults have consistently reported several modulations thought to index memory retrieval processes, but relatively limited work has explored the impact of aging on them. Further, work with functional imaging has demonstrated differential neural(More)
Abstract Attending to novelty is a critical element of human behavior and learning. Novel events can serve as task-irrelevant distracters or as potential sources of engagement by interesting or important aspects of one's environment. An optimally functioning brain should have the capacity to respond differentially to novel events depending on the(More)
This study investigated age-related changes in the early processing of novel visual stimuli using ERPs. Well-matched old (n=30), middle-aged (n=30), and young (n=32) subjects were presented standard, target/rare, and perceptually novel visual stimuli under Attend and Ignore conditions. Our results suggest that the anterior P2 component indexes the(More)
Most cognitive neuroscientific research exploring the nature of age-associated compensatory mechanisms has compared old adults (high vs. average performers) to young adults (not split by performance), leaving ambiguous whether findings are truly age-related or reflect differences between high and average performers throughout the life span. Here, we(More)
Most studies examining episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have focused on patients' impaired ability to remember information, leading to poor discrimination between studied and unstudied items at test. Poor discrimination, however, can also be attributable to an abnormally high rate of false alarms. One cause of a high false alarm rate is an(More)
In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between the cognitive status of normal adults and age-related changes in attention to novel and target events. Old, middle-age, and young subjects, divided into cognitively high and cognitively average performing groups, viewed repetitive standard stimuli, infrequent target stimuli, and unique novel(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine 3 different aspects of the emotional memory effect in aging and Alzheimer disease (AD): item-specific recollection, gist memory, and recognition response bias. METHOD Younger adults, older adults, and patients with AD performed a false recognition memory test in which participants were tested on "lure" items that were not seen at(More)
A number of studies have utilized the Remember/Know paradigm to determine event-related potential (ERP) correlates of recollection and familiarity. However, no prior work has been specifically directed at examining the processing involved in making the Remember/Know distinction. The following study employed a two-step recognition memory test in which(More)
Patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) display a greater tendency to endorse unstudied items as "old" on memory tests than healthy older adults. This liberal response bias may result in mistaken beliefs about the completion of common tasks. This research attempted to determine whether it was possible to shift the response bias of mild AD patients to be(More)