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Nitric oxide is a ubiquitous and unique biological messenger molecule. It mediates blood vessel relaxation by endothelium, immune function of macrophages, and neurotransmission of central and peripheral nervous systems. Endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthases are constitutively expressed and activated by calcium entry into cells, whereas the(More)
Although nitric oxide (NO) induces neuronal cell death under some conditions, it also can prevent apoptosis resulting from growth factor withdrawal. We investigated the molecular mechanism by which NO protects undifferentiated and differentiated PC12 cells from trophic factor deprivation-induced apoptosis. PC12 cells underwent apoptotic death in association(More)
Leucine-rich glioma inactivated 3 (LGI3) is a member of LGI/epitempin (EPTP) family. The biological function of LGI3 and its association with disease are not known. We previously reported that mouse LGI3 was highly expressed in brain in a developmentally and transcriptionally regulated manner. In this study, we identified syntaxin 1, a SNARE component in(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a widespread and multifunctional biological messenger molecule. It mediates vasodilation of blood vessels, host defence against infectious agents and tumors, and neurotransmission of the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the nervous system, NO is generated by three nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms (neuronal, endothelial and(More)
In skeletal muscle, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is anchored to the sarcolemma via the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. When dystrophin is absent, as in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and in mdx mice, nNOS is mislocalized to the interior of the muscle fiber where it continues to produce nitric oxide. This has led to the hypothesis that free(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor-mediated increases in intracellular calcium are thought to play a critical role in synaptic plasticity. The mechanisms by which changes in cytoplasmic calcium transmit the glutamate signal to the nucleus, which is ultimately important for long-lasting neuronal responses, are poorly understood. We show that NMDA(More)
NMDA-type glutamate receptor-mediated increases in intracellular calcium play a critical role in synaptic plasticity involved in learning and memory. Calcium-dependent activation of Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kineses (Erks) may transmit the glutamate signal to the nucleus which is ultimately important for long-lasting neuronal responses. The(More)
Although the oxytocin receptor modulates intracellular Ca2+ ion levels in myometrium, the identities of signal molecules have not been clearly clarified. Our previous studies on oxytocin receptor signalling demonstrated that 80 kDa Ghalpha is a signal mediator [Baek, Kwon, Lee, Kim, Muralidhar and Im (1996) Biochem. J. 315, 739-744]. To elucidate the(More)
Although nitric oxide (NO) plays key signaling roles in the nervous systems, excess NO leads to cell death. In this study, the involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1) in NO-induced cell death was investigated in PC12 cells. NO donor transiently activated p38 MAPK in the wild type(More)
The failure to improve the five-year survival rate of cancer patients, from one in three in the 1960s to one in two in the 1970s, stimulated awareness of the importance of primary prevention of cancer. Korean investigators carried out extensive long-term anticarcinogenicity experiments with 2000 newborn mice to investigate whether Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer(More)