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Shoot apical meristem (SAM) development is coordinately regulated by two interdependent signaling events: one maintaining stem cell identity and the other governing the initiation of lateral organs from the flanks of the SAM. The signaling networks involved in this process are interconnected and are regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms. Class III(More)
Controlled release of membrane-tethered, dormant precursors is an intriguing activation mechanism that regulates diverse cellular functions in eukaryotes. An exquisite example is the proteolytic activation of membrane-bound transcription factors. The proteolytic cleavage liberates active transcription factors from the membranes that can enter the nucleus(More)
STAT4, which plays a pivotal role in Th1 immune responses, enhances IFN-gamma transcription in response to the interaction of IL-12 with the IL-12R. Mice deficient in STAT4 lack IL-12-induced IFN-gamma production and Th1 differentiation and display a predominantly Th2 phenotype. Although these findings indicate that STAT4 expression levels are important for(More)
A novel reagent for low-level detection in immunoadsorbent assays is described. The reagent consists of gold nanoparticles modified to integrate bioselective species (e.g., antibodies) with molecular labels for the generation of intense, biolyte-selective surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) responses in immunoassays and other bioanalytical(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Apolipoprotein E (Apo E) is important in plasma lipid metabolism and is a component of several plasma lipoprotein-lipid particles. Three major Apo E isoforms are encoded by three common allelic forms, epsilon2, epsilon3, and epsilon4 at the APO E locus. The goal of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms in the(More)
The flavonoid quercetin is a low molecular weight substance found in fruits and vegetables. Aside from its anti-oxidative effect, quercetin, like other flavonoids, has a wide range of neuropharmacological actions. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) has a Ca(2+)-binding site, is highly permeable to the Ca(2+) ion, and plays important roles in(More)
Synthesis of biologically active antibody conjugated quantum dots (QDs) has been of great importance in cellular imaging and diagnostics. Cetuximab (or Erbitux) is the first monoclonal antibody drug which targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpressed in most cancer cells. In the present work, we investigated three different conjugation(More)
Early diabetic nephropathy is characterized by glomerular hyperpermeability as a result of impaired glomerular filtration structure caused by hyperglycemia, glycated proteins or irreversible advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGE). To investigate the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on the pathologic changes of podocyte ZO (zonula occludens)-1 protein(More)
The BubR1 mitotic-checkpoint protein monitors proper attachment of microtubules to kinetochores, and links regulation of chromosome-spindle attachment to mitotic-checkpoint signaling. Thus, disruption of BubR1 activity results in a loss of checkpoint control, chromosomal instability caused by a premature anaphase, and/or the early onset of tumorigenesis.(More)
This paper describes a new approach, based on self-assembled mixed monolayers, to the design and preparation of extrinsic Raman labels (ERLs). ERLs function as spectroscopic tags for the readout of sandwich-type immunoassays using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). They are created by coating gold nanoparticles with Raman reporter molecules and(More)