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Shoot apical meristem (SAM) development is coordinately regulated by two interdependent signaling events: one maintaining stem cell identity and the other governing the initiation of lateral organs from the flanks of the SAM. The signaling networks involved in this process are interconnected and are regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms. Class III(More)
Controlled release of membrane-tethered, dormant precursors is an intriguing activation mechanism that regulates diverse cellular functions in eukaryotes. An exquisite example is the proteolytic activation of membrane-bound transcription factors. The proteolytic cleavage liberates active transcription factors from the membranes that can enter the nucleus(More)
STAT4, which plays a pivotal role in Th1 immune responses, enhances IFN-gamma transcription in response to the interaction of IL-12 with the IL-12R. Mice deficient in STAT4 lack IL-12-induced IFN-gamma production and Th1 differentiation and display a predominantly Th2 phenotype. Although these findings indicate that STAT4 expression levels are important for(More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common primary cancer associated with high incidences of genetic variations including chromosome instability. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of HCC. However, no previous work has assessed whether HCV proteins are associated with the induction of chromosome(More)
The flavonoid quercetin is a low molecular weight substance found in fruits and vegetables. Aside from its anti-oxidative effect, quercetin, like other flavonoids, has a wide range of neuropharmacological actions. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) has a Ca(2+)-binding site, is highly permeable to the Ca(2+) ion, and plays important roles in(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Apolipoprotein E (Apo E) is important in plasma lipid metabolism and is a component of several plasma lipoprotein-lipid particles. Three major Apo E isoforms are encoded by three common allelic forms, epsilon2, epsilon3, and epsilon4 at the APO E locus. The goal of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms in the(More)
Synthesis of biologically active antibody conjugated quantum dots (QDs) has been of great importance in cellular imaging and diagnostics. Cetuximab (or Erbitux) is the first monoclonal antibody drug which targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpressed in most cancer cells. In the present work, we investigated three different conjugation(More)
Activation of the mitotic checkpoint requires the precise timing and spatial organization of mitotic regulatory events, and ensures accurate chromosome segregation. Mitotic checkpoint proteins such as BubR1 and Mad2 bind to Cdc20, and inhibit anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome(Cdc20)-mediated securin degradation and the onset of anaphase. BubR1 mediates(More)
Early diabetic nephropathy is characterized by glomerular hyperpermeability as a result of impaired glomerular filtration structure caused by hyperglycemia, glycated proteins or irreversible advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGE). To investigate the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on the pathologic changes of podocyte ZO (zonula occludens)-1 protein(More)