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Shoot apical meristem (SAM) development is coordinately regulated by two interdependent signaling events: one maintaining stem cell identity and the other governing the initiation of lateral organs from the flanks of the SAM. The signaling networks involved in this process are interconnected and are regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms. Class III(More)
Controlled release of membrane-tethered, dormant precursors is an intriguing activation mechanism that regulates diverse cellular functions in eukaryotes. An exquisite example is the proteolytic activation of membrane-bound transcription factors. The proteolytic cleavage liberates active transcription factors from the membranes that can enter the nucleus(More)
The flavonoid quercetin is a low molecular weight substance found in fruits and vegetables. Aside from its anti-oxidative effect, quercetin, like other flavonoids, has a wide range of neuropharmacological actions. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) has a Ca(2+)-binding site, is highly permeable to the Ca(2+) ion, and plays important roles in(More)
Synthesis of biologically active antibody conjugated quantum dots (QDs) has been of great importance in cellular imaging and diagnostics. Cetuximab (or Erbitux) is the first monoclonal antibody drug which targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpressed in most cancer cells. In the present work, we investigated three different conjugation(More)
Early diabetic nephropathy is characterized by glomerular hyperpermeability as a result of impaired glomerular filtration structure caused by hyperglycemia, glycated proteins or irreversible advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGE). To investigate the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on the pathologic changes of podocyte ZO (zonula occludens)-1 protein(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Apolipoprotein E (Apo E) is important in plasma lipid metabolism and is a component of several plasma lipoprotein-lipid particles. Three major Apo E isoforms are encoded by three common allelic forms, epsilon2, epsilon3, and epsilon4 at the APO E locus. The goal of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms in the(More)
STAT6 transcription factor, which has been implicated in commitment to Th2, is known to be activated by IL-4 and IL-13. Accordingly, STAT6 is primarily responsible for the transcriptional effects of IL-4 and IL-13. STAT6-deficient mice are known to have defective IL-4-mediated functions, such as B cell proliferation, Th2 cell development and IgE secretion;(More)
STAT4, which plays a pivotal role in Th1 immune responses, enhances IFN-gamma transcription in response to the interaction of IL-12 with the IL-12R. Mice deficient in STAT4 lack IL-12-induced IFN-gamma production and Th1 differentiation and display a predominantly Th2 phenotype. Although these findings indicate that STAT4 expression levels are important for(More)
The signal-responsive E3 ubiquitin ligase pellino 1 (PELI1) regulates TLR and T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and contributes to the maintenance of autoimmunity; however, little is known about the consequence of mutations that result in upregulation of PELI1. Here, we developed transgenic mice that constitutively express human PELI1 and determined that(More)
Cohesin is a multiprotein complex that establishes sister chromatid cohesion from S phase until mitosis or meiosis. In vertebrates, sister chromatid cohesion is dissolved in a stepwise manner: most cohesins are removed from the chromosome arms via a process that requires polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), aurora B and Wapl, whereas a minor amount of cohesin, found(More)