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The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD). Two large cohort studies were performed: the Dong-gu Study (3,621 men and 5,409 women) and the Namwon Study (3,703 men and 5,672 women). We assessed lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD by(More)
PURPOSE This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) in women with climacteric symptoms, and to assess their effects on vaginal atrophy, hormone levels, and lipid profiles. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study,(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases in both adults and children, such as pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis, otitis media, and sinusitis. Despite their clinical importance, to date, there have been few proteomic studies of these strains for screening of virulence factors or diagnostic markers. In the(More)
Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC is a multidrug efflux pump that expels a wide range of toxic substrates. The dynamic nature of the binding or low affinity between the components has impeded elucidation of how the three components assemble in the functional state. Here, we created fusion proteins composed of AcrB, a transmembrane linker, and two copies of AcrA.(More)
A major barrier to the physical characterization and structure determination of membrane proteins is low yield in recombinant expression. To address this problem, we have designed a selection strategy to isolate mutant strains of Escherichia coli that improve the expression of a targeted membrane protein. In this method, the coding sequence of the membrane(More)
Acinetobacter baumannii secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) during both in vitro and in vivo growth, but the biogenesis mechanism by which A. baumannii produces OMVs remains undefined. Outer membrane protein A of A. baumannii (AbOmpA) is a major protein in the outer membrane and the C-terminus of AbOmpA interacts with diaminopimelate of peptidoglycan.(More)
In nutrient-starved bacteria, RelA and SpoT proteins have key roles in reducing cell growth and overcoming stresses. Here we identify functional SpoT orthologs in metazoa (named Mesh1, encoded by HDDC3 in human and Q9VAM9 in Drosophila melanogaster) and reveal their structures and functions. Like the bacterial enzyme, Mesh1 proteins contain an active site(More)
Heparin lyase I (heparinase I) specifically depolymerizes heparin, cleaving the glycosidic linkage next to iduronic acid. Here, we show the crystal structures of heparinase I from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron at various stages of the reaction with heparin oligosaccharides before and just after cleavage and product disaccharide. The heparinase I structure is(More)
OBJECTIVES We determined the gender- and age-specific normative values of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in a healthy Korean population. We also present the mean age-specific carotid IMT values according to the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the number of MetS components. METHODS A total of 9374 subjects from the Namwon Study aged 45-74(More)
BACKGROUND Kidney dysfunction and albuminuria may be associated with BMD. However, little evidence has been reported on relationships between BMD and eGFR and albuminuria. METHODS A total of 8,992 subjects aged 50 years or older participated in a survey conducted. Participants had their lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD measured by a Lunar Prodigy bone(More)