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Control of tuberculosis worldwide depends on our understanding of human immune mechanisms, which combat the infection. Acquired T cell responses are critical for host defense against microbial pathogens, yet the mechanisms by which they act in humans remain unclear. We report that T cells, by the release of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), induce autophagy, phagosomal(More)
Autophagy and vitamin D3-mediated innate immunity have been shown to confer protection against infection with intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, we show that these two antimycobacterial defenses are physiologically linked via a regulatory function of human cathelicidin (hCAP-18/LL-37), a member of the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial(More)
The current standard of treatment against tuberculosis consists of a cocktail of first-line drugs, including isoniazid and pyrazinamide. Although these drugs are known to be bactericidal, contribution of host cell responses in the context of antimycobacterial chemotherapy, if any, remains unknown. We demonstrate that isoniazid and pyrazinamide promote(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection leads to the induction of the apoptotic response, which is associated with bacilli killing. The early secreted mycobacterial antigen ESAT-6 of Mtb has been shown to induce apoptosis in human macrophages and epithelial cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that the stimulation of human epithelial A549 cells by(More)
Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), an environmental pathogen, causes Buruli ulcer, a severe skin disease. We hypothesized that epidermal keratinocytes might not be a simple barrier, but play a role during MU infection through pattern-recognition receptors expressed in keratinocytes. We found that keratinocyte Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 and Dectin-1(More)
Control of tuberculosis worldwide depends on our understanding of human immune mechanisms, which combat the infection. Acquired T cell responses are critical for host defense against microbial pathogens, yet the mechanisms by which they act in humans remain unclear. We report that T cells, by the release of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), induce autophagy, phagosomal(More)
The intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes tuberculosis. Enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) protein, secreted by Mtb, enhances survival of Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm) in macrophages. Mtb Eis was shown to suppress host immune defenses by negatively modulating autophagy, inflammation, and cell death through JNK-dependent(More)
Airway epithelial cells are the first cells to be challenged upon contact with mycobacteria. In response, they express pattern-recognition receptors that play fundamental roles as sentinels and mediators of pulmonary innate immunity. The c-type lectin Dectin-1 is expressed predominantly on the surface of myeloid lineage cells. In this study, we examined the(More)
In human monocytes, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/1 activation leads to vitamin D3-dependent antimycobacterial activities, but the molecular mechanisms by which TLR2/1 stimulation induces antimicrobial activities against mycobacteria remain unclear. Here we show that TLR2/1/CD14 stimulation by mycobacterial lipoprotein LpqH can robustly activate antibacterial(More)
Activated microglia elicits a robust amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in the central nervous system (CNS). However, little is known about the intracellular signaling mechanisms governing these inflammatory responses in microglia in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Murine microglial(More)