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Direct evidence that hyperglycemia, rather than concomitant increases in known risk factors, induces atherosclerosis is lacking. Most diabetic mice do not exhibit a higher degree of atherosclerosis unless the development of diabetes is associated with more severe hyperlipidemia. We hypothesized that normal mice were deficient in a gene that accelerated(More)
The circulating level of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 is elevated in various insulin-resistant states including type 2 diabetes, obesity, cancer, and HIV-associated lipodystrophy. To determine the role of IL-6 in the development of insulin resistance, we examined the effects of IL-6 treatment on whole-body insulin action and glucose(More)
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is highly expressed in brown adipose tissue, where it generates heat by uncoupling electron transport from ATP production. UCP1 is also found outside classical brown adipose tissue depots, in adipocytes that are termed 'brite' (brown-in-white) or 'beige'. In humans, the presence of brite or beige (brite/beige) adipocytes is(More)
Ceramide is among a number of potential lipotoxic molecules that are thought to modulate cellular energy metabolism. The heart is one of the tissues thought to become dysfunctional due to excess lipid accumulation. Dilated lipotoxic cardiomyopathy, thought to be the result of diabetes and severe obesity, has been modeled in several genetically altered mice,(More)
Pancreatic β cell failure in type 2 diabetes is associated with functional abnormalities of insulin secretion and deficits of β cell mass. It's unclear how one begets the other. We have shown that loss of β cell mass can be ascribed to impaired FoxO1 function in different models of diabetes. Here we show that ablation of the three FoxO genes (1, 3a, and 4)(More)
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is central to the action of insulin and many growth factors. Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K (PIK3R1) have been identified in patients with SHORT syndrome - a disorder characterized by short stature, partial lipodystrophy, and insulin resistance. Here,(More)
Long-chain fatty acids (FAs) are the predominant energy substrate utilized by the adult heart. The heart can utilize unesterified FA bound to albumin or FA obtained from lipolysis of lipoprotein-bound triglyceride (TG). We used heart-specific lipoprotein lipase knock-out mice (hLpL0) to test whether these two sources of FA are interchangeable and necessary(More)
Low or absent expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) serves as an excellent malignant marker for prostate and other human cancers. The level of p27(Kip1) is regulated primarily by the ubiquitin E3 ligase SCF(SKP2) through ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Expression of the F-box protein SKP2 is inversely correlated with p27 in many(More)
OBJECTIVE Patients with diabetes often have dyslipidemia and increased postprandial lipidmia. Induction of diabetes in LDL receptor (Ldlr(-/-)) knockout mice also leads to marked dyslipidemia. The reasons for this are unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We placed Ldlr(-/-) and heterozygous LDL receptor knockout (Ldlr(+/-)) mice on a high-cholesterol(More)
To investigate the physiological effects of modulating the abundance of Munc18c or syntaxin 4 (Syn4) proteins on the regulation of glucose homeostasis in vivo, we generated tetracycline-repressible transgenic mice that overexpress either Munc18c or Syn4 proteins in skeletal muscle, pancreas and adipose tissue seven-, five-, and threefold over endogenous(More)