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Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) and IgG fusion protein, CTLA4-Ig, is a therapeutic agent used for rheumatoid arthritis. It binds B7 molecules on dendritic cells (DCs) and thereby blocks B7/CD28 costimulatory interaction and inhibits effective T cell proliferation. However, the effect of CTLA4-Ig on the regulatory T cell (Treg) is still not known.(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by infiltrations of inflammatory cells accompanied by neovascularization in the joint. We hypothesized that cell activation via the toll-like receptor (TLR) may be involved in the induction of angiogenic molecules, which are relevant to the pathogenesis of RA. RA fibroblast like synoviocytes (FLS) were stimulated(More)
Osteoclastogenesis plays an important role in joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-15 is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that appears to help mediate the pathological bone loss. This study was undertaken to explore the signaling molecules essential for osteoclastogenesis mediated by IL-15 in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. Expression(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors that connect innate and adaptive immunity. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a proinflammatory, innate response cytokine that mediates pleiotropic effector functions in inflammatory synovitis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to clarify whether stimulation of TLR2 and TLR4 by their(More)
OBJECTIVE Bone destruction is a critical pathology involved in the functional disability caused by rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Osteoclasts, which are specialized bone-resorbing cells regulated by cytokines such as RANKL, are implicated in bone destruction in RA. The aim of this study was to determine whether interleukin-21 (IL-21), a potent immunomodulatory(More)
The interleukin-33 (IL-33)/ST2 pathway has emerged as an intercellular signaling system that participates in antigen-allergen response, autoimmunity and fibrosis. It has been suggested that IL-33/ST2 signaling has been involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), because IL-33 and its receptor have been specifically mapped to RA synovium. The(More)
Interleukin-17-producing CD4(+) T cells (Th17 cells) are the dominant pathogenic cellular component in autoimmune inflammatory diseases, including autoimmune arthritis. IL-10 promotes the generation of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells via the IL-10 receptor signal. The objective of this study was to examine whether IL-10, which acts as an anti-inflammatory(More)
INTRODUCTION The study was undertaken to investigate the interrelation of toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin (IL)-17 in the salivary glands of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) and to determine the role of TLR and IL-17 in the pathophysiology of pSS. METHODS The expressions of various TLRs, IL-17 and the cytokines involved in Th17 cell(More)
To examine whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) which is known to act as an antioxidant has therapeutic effect on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice, an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. Mice were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of GSPE (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg) or saline. Clinical, histological, and biochemical parameters(More)
OBJECTIVE Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can prevent various autoimmune diseases. We examined the therapeutic potential of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-transduced MSCs in experimental autoimmune arthritis, using an accepted animal model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). METHODS DBA/1J mice with CIA were treated with syngeneic(More)