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A multibranched hierarchy of regulatory genes controls all aspects of somatic sexual development in Drosophila melanogaster. One branch of this hierarchy is headed by the fruitless (fru) gene and functions in the central nervous system, where it is necessary for male courtship behavior as well as the differentiation of a male-specific abdominal structure,(More)
Despite advances in the development of molecularly targeted therapies, metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is still incurable. Artesunate (ART), a well-known anti-malarial drug with low toxicity, exhibits highly selective anti-tumor actions against various tumors through generation of cytotoxic carbon-centered free radical in the presence of free iron.(More)
BACKGROUND Dermal fibroblast is a primary cell type responsible for synthesis and remodeling of extracellular matrix in human skin. Type I collagen and hyaluronan are main components that have roles in skin fibrosis, wound healing, tissue remodeling as well as skin aging. Several studies have reported cytokine-dependent changes in collagen expression or(More)
Recent evidence indicates that epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin derived from green tea leaves, lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. However, a precise mechanism for this biologic function has not yet been clearly delineated. Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell(More)
Despite great efforts to improve survival rates, the prognosis of lung cancer patients is still very poor, mainly due to high invasiveness. We developed brain metastatic PC14PE6/LvBr4 cells through intracardiac injection of lung adenocarcinoma PC14PE6 cells. Western blot and RT-qPCR analyses revealed that PC14PE6/LvBr4 cells had mesenchymal characteristics(More)
PURPOSE The increasing prevalence of distant metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) indicates an urgent need for novel therapeutic modalities. Brain metastasis is particularly common in NSCLC, with severe adverse effects on clinical prognosis. Although the molecular heterogeneity of NSCLC and availability of various targeted agents suggest(More)
Intratumoral heterogeneity hampers the success of marker-based anticancer treatment because the targeted therapy may eliminate a specific subpopulation of tumor cells while leaving others unharmed. Accordingly, a rational strategy minimizing survival of the drug-resistant subpopulation is essential to achieve long-term therapeutic efficacy. Using(More)
Progression to metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is the major lethal pathway of prostate cancer (PC). Herein, we demonstrated that tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2) kinase is the fundamental molecule provoking progression and metastasis of CRPC. Tpl2 upregulates CXCR4 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to activate CXCL12/CXCR4 and FAK/Akt(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by extensive local invasion, which is in contrast with extremely rare systemic metastasis of GBM. Molecular mechanisms inhibiting systemic metastasis of GBM would be a novel therapeutic candidate for GBM in the brain. Patient-derived GBM cells were primarily cultured from surgical samples of GBM patients and(More)
IkappaB kinase (IKK), the pivotal kinase in signal-dependent activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), is composed of multiple protein components, including IKK alpha/beta/gamma core subunits. To investigate the regulation of the IKK complex, we immunoaffinity purified the IKK complex, and by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identified a splice variant of(More)