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To reduce environmental damage, the properties of environmental issues must be understood. Most previous research has performed relevant assessment either qualitatively or quantitatively. This paper provides a new comprehensive evaluative framework to integrate these two types of approaches. Three methods are combined: (1) life cycle assessment (LCA), a(More)
The objectives of this study were to assess site-specific carcinogenic risk of incinerator-emitted dioxins in a manner reflecting pollutant transfer across multimedia and multi-pathways. The study used site-specific environmental and exposure information and combined the Monte Carlo method with multimedia modeling to produce probability distributions of(More)
This study aimed to identify distribution of metals and to estimate the amount of these metals that can be potentially recovered from incineration residues. First, the partitioning behavior of Cr, Cu, Fe, Cd, Al, Zn, and Pb in bottom ash and fly ash was investigated in one large municipal waste incinerator in Taiwan. In addition, the material flow analysis(More)
Uncertainty is an inevitable source of noise in water quality management and will weaken the adequacy of decisions. Uncertainty is derived from imperfect information, natural variability, and knowledge-based inconsistency. To make better decisions, it is necessary to reduce uncertainty. Conventional uncertainty analyses have focused on quantifying the(More)
This paper reviews several models developed to support decision making in municipal solid waste management (MSWM). The concepts underlying sustainable MSWM models can be divided into two categories: one incorporates social factors into decision making methods, and the other includes public participation in the decision-making process. The public is only(More)
The traditional life cycle assessment (LCA) does not perform quantitative uncertainty analysis. However, without characterizing the associated uncertainty, the reliability of assessment results cannot be understood or ascertained. In this study, the Bayesian method, in combination with the Monte Carlo technique, is used to quantify and update the(More)
Concerns over health risks and financial costs have caused difficulties in the management of arsenic contaminated land in Taiwan. Inflexible risk criteria and lack of economic support often result in failure of a brownfields regeneration project. To address the issue of flexible risk criteria, this study is aimed to develop maps with receptor-specific risk(More)
The life cycle thinking was integrated with risk assessment to develop the life cycle risk assessment (LCRA) methodology in this study. Because LCRA assessed risks from a life cycle perspective of the concerned policies, it was helpful to identify important sources, contaminants, receptors and exposure pathways along the life cycle of reuse activities. The(More)
Health risk assessment (HRA) has been recognized as a useful tool for identifying health risks of human activities. In particular, this method has been well applied to spatially defined units, such as a production plant, a treatment facility, and a contaminated site. However, the management strategies based on the risk information will be more efficient if(More)
Triclosan (TCS) is a widely-used antimicrobial agent in many consumer products around the world, and China is a major producer and consumer of TCS. In this study substance flow analysis (SFA) was used to construct a static model of anthropogenic TCS metabolism in China in 2008. The systematic SFA results were used to determine possible exposure pathways and(More)