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Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that when bilinguals named pictures or read words aloud, in their native or nonnative language, activation was higher relative to monolinguals in 5 left hemisphere regions: dorsal precentral gyrus, pars triangularis, pars opercularis, superior temporal gyrus, and planum temporale. We further demonstrate(More)
The effect of relative language proficiency on the spatial distribution and magnitude of BOLD signal change was evaluated by studying two groups of right-handed English-Mandarin bilingual participants with contrasting language proficiencies as they made semantic judgments with words and characters. Greater language proficiency corresponded to shorter(More)
Neuropsychological and functional imaging studies have associated the conceptual processing of numbers with bilateral parietal regions (including intraparietal sulcus). However, the processes driving these effects remain unclear because both left and right posterior parietal regions are activated by many other conceptual, perceptual, attention, and(More)
Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that developmental dyslexia has a different neural basis in Chinese and English populations because of known differences in the processing demands of the Chinese and English writing systems. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we provide the first direct statistically based investigation into how(More)
The effect of word frequency on semantic processing was characterized by studying two groups of right-handed participants using fMRI. Stimuli were presented in blocks of either high frequency or low frequency word triplets where a sample word appeared above a pair of test words. One group (n = 8) made semantic judgments by selecting the word from the test(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest the importance of phonological working memory (PWM) in language acquisition. We investigated the neural correlates of PWM in young adults who were under compelling social pressure to be bilingual. Equal bilinguals had high proficiency in English and Chinese as measured by a standardized examination, whereas unequal(More)
We determined the reproducibility of both the direction and the effect size of the word frequency effect (WFE) as it relates to associative semantic judgments. Sixteen volunteers were scanned twice. At the group level of analysis, signal change and voxel counting could both reproducibly detect the existence of a WFE. However, signal change data showed less(More)
Several perisylvian brain regions show preferential activation for spoken language above and beyond other complex sounds. These "speech-selective" effects might be driven by regions' intrinsic biases for processing the acoustical or informational properties of speech. Alternatively, such speech selectivity might emerge through extensive experience in(More)
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of the ethanol extract of Cirsium japonicum (CJ) in mice. The extract was orally administered at dosages of 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of body weight. The CJ-induced behavioral changes were assessed using the open-field and elevated-plus maze test. The ethanol extract of CJ did not affect(More)
The ability to respond to small signalling molecules such as steroid hormones is important for many physiological processes. Steroid hormones act through a group of high affinity receptors that regulate transcription by binding to hormone response elements (HREs) located within the promoters of target genes, which themselves are organized with nuclear(More)