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CooA is a heme-containing transcriptional activator that enables Rhodospirillum rubrum to sense and grow on CO as a sole energy source. We have identified a number of CooA homologs through database searches, expressed these heterologously in Escherichia coli, and monitored their ability to respond to CO in vivo. Further in vitro analysis of two CooA(More)
Vfr, a transcription factor homologous to the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP), regulates many aspects of virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Vfr, like CRP, binds to cAMP and then recognizes its target DNA and activates transcription. Here we report that Vfr has important functional differences from CRP in terms of ligand sensing(More)
CooA is a dimeric CO-sensing heme protein from Rhodospirillum rubrum. The heme iron in reduced CooA is six-coordinate; the axial ligands are His-77 and Pro-2. CO displaces Pro-2 and induces a conformation change that allows CooA to bind DNA and activate transcription of coo genes. Equilibrium CO binding is cooperative, with a Hill coefficient of n = 1.4,(More)
Genomic analysis suggested the existence of a CO-sensing bacterial transcriptional regulator that couples an N-terminal PAS fold domain to a C-terminal DNA-binding LytTR domain. UV/visible-light spectral analyses of heterologously expressed, purified full-length proteins indicated that they contained a hexacoordinated b-type heme moiety that avidly binds CO(More)
Carbon monoxide (CO) has long been known to have dramatic physiological effects on organisms ranging from bacteria to humans, but recently there have a number of suggestions that organisms might have specific sensors for CO. This article reviews the current evidence for a variety of proteins with demonstrated or potential CO-sensing ability. Particular(More)
CooA is a CO-dependent heme protein transcription factor of the bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. CO binding to its heme causes CooA to bind DNA and activate expression of genes for CO metabolism. To understand the nature of CO activation, several CooA mutational variants have been studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy, in vivo activity measurements, and(More)
In many Gram-positive bacteria PerR is a major peroxide sensor whose repressor activity is dependent on a bound metal cofactor. The prototype for PerR sensors, the Bacillus subtilis PerRBS protein, represses target genes when bound to either Mn(2+) or Fe(2+) as corepressor, but only the Fe(2+)-bound form responds to H2O2. The orthologous protein in the(More)
The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family proteins include sensors of Fe (Fur), Zn (Zur), and peroxide (PerR). Among Fur family proteins, Fur and Zur are ubiquitous in most prokaryotic organisms, whereas PerR exists mainly in Gram positive bacteria as a functional homologue of OxyR. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and(More)
Spectroscopic characterization of the newly discovered heme-PAS domain sensor protein BxRcoM-2 reveals that this protein undergoes redox-dependent ligand switching and CO- and NO-induced ligand displacement. The aerobic bacterium Burkholderia xenovorans expresses two homologous heme-containing proteins that promote CO-dependent transcription in vivo. These(More)
The heme-containing transcriptional factor CooA regulates the expression of genes involved in the oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. CooA is both a redox sensor and a specific CO sensor, a combination of properties that is unique among heme proteins. Extensive biochemical and genetic analyses, interpreted in the(More)