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Cell replacement using stem cells is a promising therapeutic approach to treat degenerative motor neuron (MN) disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a desirable cell source for autologous cell replacement therapy to treat nervous system injury due to their(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated a measurable therapeutic effect following transplantation into animal models of spinal cord injury. However, the mechanism(s) by which transplanted cells promote nerve regeneration and/or functional recovery remains indeterminate. Several studies have suggested that MSCs promote tissue repair via secretion of(More)
Autophagy deregulation during obesity contributes to the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders. However, without understanding the molecular mechanism of obesity interference in autophagy, development of therapeutic strategies for correcting such defects in obese individuals is challenging. Here we show that a chronic increase of the cytosolic calcium(More)
Upon prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, cells attenuate protein translation to prevent accumulation of unfolded proteins. Here we show that Sestrin2 is critical for this process. Sestrin2 expression is induced by an ER stress-activated transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein beta (c/EBPβ). Once induced, Sestrin2 halts protein synthesis(More)
Sestrins are stress-inducible metabolic regulators that suppress a wide range of age- and obesity-associated pathologies, many of which are due to mTORC1 overactivation. Upon various stresses, the Sestrins inhibit mTORC1 activity through an indirect mechanism that is still unclear. GATORs are recently identified protein complexes that regulate the activity(More)
Neurotrophin receptors utilize specific adaptor proteins to activate signaling pathways involved in various neuronal functions, such as neurite outgrowth and cytoskeletal remodeling. The Ankyrin-Repeat Rich Membrane Spanning (ARMS)/kinase D-interacting substrate-220 kDa (Kidins220) serves as a unique downstream adaptor protein of Trk receptor tyrosine(More)
The mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways are critical regulators of intestinal inflammation and colon cancer growth. Sestrins are stress-inducible proteins, which suppress both mTORC1 and ER stress; however, the role of Sestrins in colon physiology and tumorigenesis has been elusive due to the lack of studies in human(More)
Enhancing adult nerve regeneration is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating spinal cord injury. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major contributor to angiogenesis, which can reduce the spinal cord injury by inhibiting the inflammation and improve recovery after spinal cord injury. We have previously demonstrated that exogenous VEGF has(More)
Sestrin2 is a stress-inducible protein that functions as an antioxidant and inhibitor of mTOR complex 1. In a recent study, we found that Sestrin2 overexpression in brown adipocytes interfered with normal metabolism by reducing mitochondrial respiration through the suppression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. The metabolic effects of Sestrin2 in(More)
authors neglected to indicate that the same results were also reported by Parmigiani et al. (reference 31), but in that paper the relevant data are not shown. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license,(More)
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