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Chronic activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and p70 S6 kinase (S6K) in response to hypernutrition contributes to obesity-associated metabolic pathologies, including hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance. Sestrins are stress-inducible proteins that activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and suppress mTORC1-S6K activity, but(More)
Cell replacement using stem cells is a promising therapeutic approach to treat degenerative motor neuron (MN) disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a desirable cell source for autologous cell replacement therapy to treat nervous system injury due to their(More)
Upon prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, cells attenuate protein translation to prevent accumulation of unfolded proteins. Here we show that Sestrin2 is critical for this process. Sestrin2 expression is induced by an ER stress-activated transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein beta (c/EBPβ). Once induced, Sestrin2 halts protein synthesis(More)
Autophagy-related 1 (Atg1)/Unc-51-like protein kinases (ULKs) are evolutionarily conserved proteins that play critical physiological roles in controlling autophagy, cell growth and neurodevelopment. RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (RB1CC1), also known as PTK2/FAK family-interacting protein of 200 kDa (FIP200) is a recently discovered binding partner of ULK1.(More)
The mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways are critical regulators of intestinal inflammation and colon cancer growth. Sestrins are stress-inducible proteins, which suppress both mTORC1 and ER stress; however, the role of Sestrins in colon physiology and tumorigenesis has been elusive due to the lack of studies in human(More)
Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are considered a desirable cell source for autologous cell transplantation therapy to treat nervous system injury due to their ability to differentiate into specific cell types and render the tissue microenvironment more favorable for tissue repair by secreting various growth factors. To potentiate(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated a measurable therapeutic effect following transplantation into animal models of spinal cord injury. However, the mechanism(s) by which transplanted cells promote nerve regeneration and/or functional recovery remains indeterminate. Several studies have suggested that MSCs promote tissue repair via secretion of(More)
Autophagy deregulation during obesity contributes to the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders. However, without understanding the molecular mechanism of obesity interference in autophagy, development of therapeutic strategies for correcting such defects in obese individuals is challenging. Here we show that a chronic increase of the cytosolic calcium(More)
Sestrins are stress-inducible metabolic regulators that suppress a wide range of age- and obesity-associated pathologies, many of which are due to mTORC1 overactivation. Upon various stresses, the Sestrins inhibit mTORC1 activity through an indirect mechanism that is still unclear. GATORs are recently identified protein complexes that regulate the activity(More)
BACKGROUND Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are advantageous for cell-based therapy to treat ischemic diseases owing to their capacity to secrete various paracrine factors with potent angiogenic activity. MATERIALS & METHODS In this study, we describe a method to increase secreted levels of VEGF and HGF from hMSCs without genetic(More)