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Ischemic depolarizing events, such as repetitive spontaneous periinfarct spreading depolarizations (PIDs), expand the infarct size after experimental middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. This worsening may result from increased metabolic demand, exacerbating the mismatch between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism. Here, we present data showing that(More)
The Tg2576 transgenic mouse model of human cerebral amyloid angiopathy is characterized by age-dependent cerebrovascular deposition of amyloid-beta (Abeta) starting from 9 months of age and progressively worsening to involve most pial arterioles by 18 months; soluble Abeta levels are elevated long before vascular deposition takes place in this model. It has(More)
OBJECTIVE The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist fingolimod (FTY720), that has shown efficacy in advanced multiple sclerosis clinical trials, decreases reperfusion injury in heart, liver, and kidney. We therefore tested the therapeutic effects of fingolimod in several rodent models of focal cerebral ischemia. To assess the translational(More)
Normobaric hyperoxia is under investigation as a treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. In experimental models, normobaric hyperoxia reduces cerebral ischaemic injury and improves functional outcome. The mechanisms of neuroprotection are still debated because, (i) inhalation of 100% O2 does not significantly increase total blood O2 content; (ii) it is not(More)
We studied unique cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses to cortical spreading depression in mice using a novel two-dimensional CBF imaging technique, laser speckle flowmetry. Cortical spreading depression caused a triphasic CBF response in both rat and mouse cortex. In rats, mild initial hypoperfusion (approximately 75% of baseline) was followed by a(More)
BACKGROUND Remnant lipoprotein particles (RLPs), products of lipolytic degradation of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein derived from VLDL, exert atherogenesis. In this study, we observed how RLPs induced cytotoxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and cilostazol prevented cell death. METHODS AND RESULTS RLPs were isolated from the plasma(More)
Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of stroke, the third most common cause of death and the leading cause of long-term neurological disability in the world. However, there is little insight into the underlying cellular pathways that link SMC function to brain ischemia susceptibility. Using a hitherto(More)
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is associated with severe hypoperfusion in mice. Using minimally invasive multimodal optical imaging, we show that severe flow reductions during and after spreading depression are associated with a steep decline in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. Concurrent severe hemoglobin desaturation suggests that the oxygen(More)
Uncaria sinensis (US) has long been used as a traditional Korean medicine to treat cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases, including hypertension and cerebral ischemia. Several recent studies have indicated that US has neuroprotective and cerebrovascular protective effects in ischemic brain injury; however, little is known about the(More)
This study shows the signaling pathway by which cilostazol suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) phosphorylation and apoptosis via casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylation in the SK-N-SH cells (neuroblastoma cells). Cilostazol (10 microM) fully restored cell proliferation(More)