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OBJECTIVE The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist fingolimod (FTY720), that has shown efficacy in advanced multiple sclerosis clinical trials, decreases reperfusion injury in heart, liver, and kidney. We therefore tested the therapeutic effects of fingolimod in several rodent models of focal cerebral ischemia. To assess the translational(More)
Normobaric hyperoxia is under investigation as a treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. In experimental models, normobaric hyperoxia reduces cerebral ischaemic injury and improves functional outcome. The mechanisms of neuroprotection are still debated because, (i) inhalation of 100% O2 does not significantly increase total blood O2 content; (ii) it is not(More)
Ischemic depolarizing events, such as repetitive spontaneous periinfarct spreading depolarizations (PIDs), expand the infarct size after experimental middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. This worsening may result from increased metabolic demand, exacerbating the mismatch between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism. Here, we present data showing that(More)
The Tg2576 transgenic mouse model of human cerebral amyloid angiopathy is characterized by age-dependent cerebrovascular deposition of amyloid-beta (Abeta) starting from 9 months of age and progressively worsening to involve most pial arterioles by 18 months; soluble Abeta levels are elevated long before vascular deposition takes place in this model. It has(More)
Cilostazol increases intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels by inhibiting type III phosphodiesterase. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of intermittent claudication. Its principal actions include inhibition of platelet aggregation, antithrombotic action in cerebral ischemia, and vasodilation,(More)
BACKGROUND Migraine is an independent risk factor for stroke. Mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM), a migraine subtype that also carries an increased stroke risk, is a useful model for common migraine phenotypes because of shared aura and headache features, trigger factors, and underlying glutamatergic(More)
Rho-kinase is a serine threonine kinase that increases vasomotor tone via its effects on both endothelium and smooth muscle. Rho-kinase inhibition reduces cerebral infarct size in wild type, but not endothelial nitric oxide synthase deficient (eNOS-/-) mice. The mechanism may be related to Rho-kinase activation under hypoxic/ischemic conditions and impaired(More)
We studied unique cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses to cortical spreading depression in mice using a novel two-dimensional CBF imaging technique, laser speckle flowmetry. Cortical spreading depression caused a triphasic CBF response in both rat and mouse cortex. In rats, mild initial hypoperfusion (approximately 75% of baseline) was followed by a(More)
To investigate the question of whether electroacupuncture (EA) promotes functional recovery via enhancement of proliferation and differentiation of neuronal stem cells (NSCs) in ischemic stroke, EA stimulation with 2 Hz was applied at bilateral acupoints to Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mice. EA stimulation(More)
Beneficial effects of the water extract of Polygonum multiflorum (WEPM) and their mechanisms were investigated in HT22 hippocampal cells and hippocampus of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mice. In HT22 cells against glutamate-induced oxidative stress, pretreatment with WEPM resulted in significantly reduced apoptotic neuronal death. Pretreatment(More)