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Haplotype-based methods offer a powerful approach to disease gene mapping, based on the association between causal mutations and the ancestral haplotypes on which they arose. As part of The SNP Consortium Allele Frequency Projects, we characterized haplotype patterns across 51 autosomal regions (spanning 13 megabases of the human genome) in samples from(More)
We describe the Phase II HapMap, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25-35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed. The map is estimated to capture untyped common variation with an average maximum r2 of between(More)
With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a(More)
Despite great progress in identifying genetic variants that influence human disease, most inherited risk remains unexplained. A more complete understanding requires genome-wide studies that fully examine less common alleles in populations with a wide range of ancestry. To inform the design and interpretation of such studies, we genotyped 1.6 million common(More)
A physical map has been constructed of the human genome containing 15,086 sequence-tagged sites (STSs), with an average spacing of 199 kilobases. The project involved assembly of a radiation hybrid map of the human genome containing 6193 loci and incorporated a genetic linkage map of the human genome containing 5264 loci. This information was combined with(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent and specific mitogen for endothelial cells. VEGF is synthesized and secreted by many differentiated cells in response to a variety of stimuli including hypoxia. VEGF is expressed in a variety of tissues as multiple homodimeric forms (121, 165, 189, and 206 amino acids/monomer) resulting from alternative(More)
BACKGROUND The use of robotic single-site cholecystectomy has increased exponentially. There are few reports describing the safety, efficacy, and operative learning curve of robotic single-site cholecystectomy either in the community setting or with nonelective surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a retrospective review of a prospective database of(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in various cell types is induced by hypoxia and other stimuli. VEGF mediates endothelial cell proliferation, angiogenesis, vascular growth, and vascular permeability via the endothelial cell receptors, kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR)/fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk-1) and FLT-1. Alanine-scanning(More)
Telomere-specific clones are a valuable resource for the characterization of chromosomal rearrangements. We previously reported a first-generation set of human telomere probes consisting of 34 genomic clones, which were a known distance from the end of the chromosome ( approximately 300 kb), and 7 clones corresponding to the most distal markers on the(More)
Radiation hybrid (RH) maps are a useful tool for genome analysis, providing a direct method for localizing genes and anchoring physical maps and genomic sequence along chromosomes. The construction of a comprehensive RH map for the human genome has resulted in gene maps reflecting the location of more than 30,000 human genes. Here we report the first(More)