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"Perceptual" masking of speech by multitalker speech (babble) has been widely reported but poorly quantified. Furthermore, the validity of the construct of perceptual masking is questionable. This report describes an experiment using a newly standardized test of speech perception in noise (SPIN) with both babble and spectrally matched random-noise maskers.(More)
Clinicopathological observations suggest there is considerable overlap between vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used immunochemical methods to compare quantities of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides in post mortem brain samples from VaD, AD subjects and nondemented ageing controls. Total Abeta peptides extracted from temporal and frontal(More)
The mechanism by which aggregates of the beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) mediate their toxicity is uncertain. We show here that the expression of the 42-amino-acid isoform of Abeta (Abeta(1-42)) changes the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease. A subsequent genetic screen confirmed the importance of(More)
The intracellular aspartyl protease cathepsin D (catD) is involved in such Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related processes as the activation of the endosomal/lysosomal system and the cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein into amyloidogenic components, which may initiate neurodegeneration. A non-synonymous polymorphism (exon 2, C to T exchange leading to(More)
The efficacy of gamma-secretase inhibitors in vivo has, to date, been generally assessed in transgenic mouse models expressing increased levels of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide thereby allowing the detection of changes in Abeta production. However, it is not clear whether the in vivo potency of gamma-secretase inhibitors is independent of the level of(More)
Synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices have been studied during ageing of a double transgenic mouse strain relevant to early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). This strain, which over-expresses both the 695 amino acid isoform of human amyloid precursor protein (APP) with K670N and M671L mutations(More)
There is a substantial body of evidence indicating that beta-amyloid peptides (Abeta) are critical factors in the onset and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). One strategy for combating AD is to reduce or eliminate the production of Abeta through inhibition of the gamma-secretase enzyme, which cleaves Abeta from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We(More)
PAD4 has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune, cardiovascular and oncological diseases through clinical genetics and gene disruption in mice. New selective PAD4 inhibitors binding a calcium-deficient form of the PAD4 enzyme have validated the critical enzymatic role of human and mouse PAD4 in both histone citrullination and neutrophil(More)
Protein arginine deiminases (PADs) are calcium-dependent histone-modifying enzymes whose activity is dysregulated in inflammatory diseases and cancer. PAD2 functions as an Estrogen Receptor (ER) coactivator in breast cancer cells via the citrullination of histone tail arginine residues at ER binding sites. Although an attractive therapeutic target, the(More)
Studies investigating the causes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) point to genetic, as well as epigenetic, mechanisms of the disease. Identification of epigenetic processes that contribute to ASD development and progression is of major importance and may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Here, we identify the bromodomain and(More)