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Progressive cerebral amyloid beta-protein (A beta) deposition is believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Elevated levels of A beta(42) peptide formation have been linked to early-onset familial AD-causing gene mutations in the amyloid beta-protein precursor (A beta PP) and the presenilins. Sequential cleavage of A(More)
We have studied synaptic function in a transgenic mouse strain relevant to Alzheimer's disease (AD), overexpressing the 695 amino acid isoform of human amyloid precursor protein with K670N and M671L mutations (APP(695)SWE mice), which is associated with early-onset familial AD. Aged-transgenic mice had substantially elevated levels of Abeta (up to 22(More)
PAD4 has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune, cardiovascular and oncological diseases through clinical genetics and gene disruption in mice. New selective PAD4 inhibitors binding a calcium-deficient form of the PAD4 enzyme have validated the critical enzymatic role of human and mouse PAD4 in both histone citrullination and neutrophil(More)
In this report, inhibitors of the gamma-secretase enzyme have been exploited to characterize the antiproliferative relationship between target inhibition and cellular responses in Notch-dependent human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell lines. Inhibition of gamma-secretase led to decreased Notch signaling, measured by endogenous NOTCH(More)
Notch receptors and the amyloid precursor protein are type I membrane proteins that are proteolytically cleaved within their transmembrane domains by a presenilin (PS)-dependent gamma-secretase activity. In both proteins, two peptide bonds are hydrolyzed: one near the inner leaflet and the other in the middle of the transmembrane domain. Under saturating(More)
The mechanism by which aggregates of the beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) mediate their toxicity is uncertain. We show here that the expression of the 42-amino-acid isoform of Abeta (Abeta(1-42)) changes the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease. A subsequent genetic screen confirmed the importance of(More)
Clinicopathological observations suggest there is considerable overlap between vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used immunochemical methods to compare quantities of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides in post mortem brain samples from VaD, AD subjects and nondemented ageing controls. Total Abeta peptides extracted from temporal and frontal(More)
The efficacy of gamma-secretase inhibitors in vivo has, to date, been generally assessed in transgenic mouse models expressing increased levels of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide thereby allowing the detection of changes in Abeta production. However, it is not clear whether the in vivo potency of gamma-secretase inhibitors is independent of the level of(More)
Cytokine-induced expression of the E-selectin gene requires the promoter binding and interaction of the transcription factors NF-kappa B and ATF. Here we have further analyzed the E-selectin promoter and revealed an additional region (nucleotides -140 to -105 [-140/-105]) which is essential in controlling promoter activation by cytokines. We identified(More)