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1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (vitD3) is an immunoregulatory hormone with beneficial effects on Th1 mediated autoimmune diseases. Although the inhibitory effects of vitD3 on macrophages and dendritic cells are well documented, any direct effects of vitD3 on Th cell development are not clearly defined. Using CD4(+)Mel14(+) T cells derived from mice on a(More)
We studied the presence of Natural antibodies in plasma samples from individual birds from selected chicken lines at young and old age. Binding, specificity, and relative affinity to various antigens were determined in plasma from non-immunized female chickens at 5 weeks of age, and in plasma obtained from the same chickens one year later using indirect(More)
We show that a combination of the immunosuppressive drugs, vitamin D3 and Dexamethasone, induced human and mouse naive CD4(+) T cells to differentiate in vitro into regulatory T cells. In contrast to the previously described in vitro derived CD4(+) T cells, these cells produced only interleukin (IL)-10, but no IL-5 and interferon (IFN)-gamma, and(More)
The cytokine network is an important homeostatic system with potent activities in immune surveillance, growth, developmental and repair processes. Although interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is considered a pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokine, merely focussing on its inflammatory role would be too narrow an approach. Elucidation of the human, the mouse and the Fugu(More)
Species from all major jawed vertebrate taxa possess linked polymorphic class I and II genes located in an MHC. The bony fish are exceptional with class I and II genes located on different linkage groups. Zebrafish (Danio rerio), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and barbus (Barbus intermedius) represent highly divergent cyprinid genera. The genera Danio and(More)
In higher vertebrates, mineralo- (aldosterone) and glucocorticoids (cortisol/corticosterone) exert their multiple actions via specific transcription factors, glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors. Teleostean fishes lack aldosterone and mineral regulatory processes seem under dominant control by cortisol. Despite the absence of the(More)
BACKGROUND In hospital-based studies, alpha(+)-thalassemia has been found to protect against severe, life-threatening falciparum malaria. alpha(+)-Thalassemia does not seem to prevent infection or high parasite densities but rather limits progression to severe disease--in particular, severe malarial anemia. We assessed to what extent alpha(+)-thalassemia(More)
Non-inflammatory dendritic cell (DC) subsets play an essential role in preventing massive inflammation in mucosal tissues. We investigated whether mucosa-related factors, namely retinoic acid (RA) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1), can induce such DC types. DCs were differentiated from monocytes in the absence or presence TGF-β1 and RA. The(More)
In a longitudinal prospective study a muscle biopsy was taken from 30/32 (33%) of the 98 patients who developed critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy (CIPNM). Neuropathic changes were found in 37%, myopathic in 40%, and a combination in 23% of the biopsies. The immunohistopathology showed macrophages and Th-cells in 40% and 60% of the muscle biopsies(More)