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We show that a combination of the immunosuppressive drugs, vitamin D3 and Dexamethasone, induced human and mouse naive CD4(+) T cells to differentiate in vitro into regulatory T cells. In contrast to the previously described in vitro derived CD4(+) T cells, these cells produced only interleukin (IL)-10, but no IL-5 and interferon (IFN)-gamma, and(More)
In higher vertebrates, mineralo- (aldosterone) and glucocorticoids (cortisol/corticosterone) exert their multiple actions via specific transcription factors, glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors. Teleostean fishes lack aldosterone and mineral regulatory processes seem under dominant control by cortisol. Despite the absence of the(More)
BACKGROUND Probiotics can be used to stimulate or regulate epithelial and immune cells of the intestinal mucosa and generate beneficial mucosal immunomodulatory effects. Beneficial effects of specific strains of probiotics have been established in the treatment and prevention of various intestinal disorders, including allergic diseases and diarrhea.(More)
Species from all major jawed vertebrate taxa possess linked polymorphic class I and II genes located in an MHC. The bony fish are exceptional with class I and II genes located on different linkage groups. Zebrafish (Danio rerio), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and barbus (Barbus intermedius) represent highly divergent cyprinid genera. The genera Danio and(More)
Cytokines and their receptors are involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases. Here we present a detailed review on cytokines, receptors and signalling routes, and show that one important lesson from cytokine biology is the complex and diverse regulation of cytokine activity. The activity of cytokines is controlled at the level of transcription,(More)
BACKGROUND The innate immune system relies upon a wide range of germ-line encoded receptors including a large number of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) receptors. Different Ig-like immune receptor families have been reported in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish. Most innate immune receptors of the IgSF are type I transmembrane proteins containing one or(More)
One of the characteristics of multiple sclerosis is the unpredictable occurrence of exacerbations and remissions. These fluctuations in disease activity are related to alterations in (auto-)immune activity. Exacerbations lead to short-term morbidity, but may also influence long-term disability. This longitudinal study in 73 patients with relapsing-remitting(More)
We discuss current information on the ability of extracts and isolated metabolites from mushrooms to modulate immune responses. This can result in a more enhanced innate and acquired disease resistance. The major immunomodulating effects of these active substances derived from mushrooms include mitogenicity and activation of immune effector cells, such as(More)
BACKGROUND The effects of a restricted elimination diet in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have mainly been investigated in selected subgroups of patients. We aimed to investigate whether there is a connection between diet and behaviour in an unselected group of children. METHODS The Impact of Nutrition on Children with ADHD(More)