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BACKGROUND Ketamine exerts a robust, rapid, and relatively sustained antidepressant effect in patients with major depression. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the intriguing effects of N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists could lead to novel treatments with a rapid onset of action. METHODS The learned helplessness, forced swim, and passive(More)
Differential display of mRNA was used to identify concordant changes in gene expression induced by two mood-stabilizing agents, lithium and valproate (VPA). Both treatments, on chronic administration, increased mRNA levels of the transcription factor polyomavirus enhancer-binding protein (PEBP) 2beta in frontal cortex (FCx). Both treatments also increased(More)
Mood disorders are common, chronic, recurrent mental illnesses that affect the lives of millions of individuals worldwide. To date, the monoaminergic systems (serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic) in the brain have received the greatest attention in neurobiological studies of mood disorders, and most therapeutics target these systems. However, there(More)
The 'neurotrophin hypothesis of depression' is based largely on correlations between stress or antidepressant treatment and down- or upregulation, respectively, of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Genetic disruption of the signaling pathways involving BDNF and its receptor, the tyrosine kinase TrkB, does not seem to cause depressive behaviors, but(More)
Valproic acid (VPA) is a potent broad-spectrum anti-epileptic with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of bipolar affective disorder. It has previously been demonstrated that both VPA and lithium increase activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity, but the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been elucidated. However, it is known that(More)
CONTEXT Existing therapies for bipolar depression have a considerable lag of onset of action. Pharmacological strategies that produce rapid antidepressant effects-for instance, within a few hours or days-would have an enormous impact on patient care and public health. OBJECTIVE To determine whether an N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor antagonist produces(More)
Rodent studies have shown that lithium exerts neurotrophic or neuroprotective effects. We used three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and brain segmentation to study pharmacologically-induced increases in grey matter volume with chronic lithium use in patients with bipolar mood disorder. Grey-matter volume increased after 4 weeks of treatment. The(More)
BACKGROUND Recent preclinical studies have shown that lithium (Li) robustly increases the levels of the major neuroprotective protein, bcl-2, in rat brain and in cells of human neuronal origin. These effects are accompanied by striking neuroprotective effects in vitro and in the rodent central nervous system in vivo. We have undertaken the present study to(More)
The mood-stabilizing agents lithium and valproic acid (VPA) increase DNA binding activity and transactivation activity of AP-1 transcription factors, as well as the expression of genes regulated by AP-1, in cultured cells and brain regions involved in mood regulation. In the present study, we found that VPA activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase(More)