Husseini K. Manji

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BACKGROUND Ketamine exerts a robust, rapid, and relatively sustained antidepressant effect in patients with major depression. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the intriguing effects of N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists could lead to novel treatments with a rapid onset of action. METHODS The learned helplessness, forced swim, and passive(More)
The limited success of genetic studies of major depression has raised questions concerning the definition of genetically relevant phenotypes. This paper presents strategies to improve the phenotypic definition of major depression by proposing endophenotypes at two levels: First, dissecting the depressive phenotype into key components results in narrow(More)
Mood disorders are common, chronic, recurrent mental illnesses that affect the lives of millions of individuals worldwide. To date, the monoaminergic systems (serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic) in the brain have received the greatest attention in neurobiological studies of mood disorders, and most therapeutics target these systems. However, there(More)
The 'neurotrophin hypothesis of depression' is based largely on correlations between stress or antidepressant treatment and down- or upregulation, respectively, of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Genetic disruption of the signaling pathways involving BDNF and its receptor, the tyrosine kinase TrkB, does not seem to cause depressive behaviors, but(More)
CONTEXT Existing therapies for bipolar depression have a considerable lag of onset of action. Pharmacological strategies that produce rapid antidepressant effects-for instance, within a few hours or days-would have an enormous impact on patient care and public health. OBJECTIVE To determine whether an N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor antagonist produces(More)
Differential display of mRNA was used to identify concordant changes in gene expression induced by two mood-stabilizing agents, lithium and valproate (VPA). Both treatments, on chronic administration, increased mRNA levels of the transcription factor polyomavirus enhancer-binding protein (PEBP) 2beta in frontal cortex (FCx). Both treatments also increased(More)
Valproic acid (VPA) is a potent broad-spectrum anti-epileptic with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of bipolar affective disorder. It has previously been demonstrated that both VPA and lithium increase activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity, but the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been elucidated. However, it is known that(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that mood disorders are associated with a reduction in regional CNS volume and neuronal and glial cell atrophy or loss. Lithium, a mainstay in the treatment of mood disorders, has recently been demonstrated to robustly increase the levels of the cytoprotective B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (bcl-2) in areas of rodent brain and in(More)
CONTEXT Existing therapies for major depression have a lag of onset of action of several weeks, resulting in considerable morbidity. Exploring pharmacological strategies that have rapid onset of antidepressant effects within a few days and that are sustained would have an enormous impact on patient care. Converging lines of evidence suggest the role of the(More)