Hussam El Dine Zaher

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We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of caenophidian (advanced) snakes using sequences from two mitochondrial genes (12S and 16S rRNA) and one nuclear (c‐mos) gene (1681 total base pairs), and with 131 terminal taxa sampled from throughout all major caenophidian lineages but focussing on Neotropical xenodontines. Direct optimization parsimony(More)
Advanced titanosaurian sauropods, such as nemegtosaurids and saltasaurids, were diverse and one of the most important groups of herbivores in the terrestrial biotas of the Late Cretaceous. However, little is known about their rise and diversification prior to the Late Cretaceous. Furthermore, the evolution of their highly-modified skull anatomy has been(More)
A 95-million-year-old fossil snake from the Middle East documents the most extreme hindlimb development of any known member of that group, as it preserves the tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges. It is more complete than Pachyrhachis, a second fossil snake with hindlimbs that was recently portrayed to be basal to all other snakes.(More)
It has commonly been thought that snakes underwent progressive loss of their limbs by gradual diminution of their use. However, recent developmental and palaeontological discoveries suggest a more complex scenario of limb reduction, still poorly documented in the fossil record. Here we report a fossil snake with a sacrum supporting a pelvic girdle and(More)
A new notosuchian crocodyliform from the Late Cretaceous Bauru Group found in the southeastern State of São Paulo (Brazil) is described here. The new taxon, Caipirasuchus stenognathus, is referred as a new species of the recently erected genus Caipirasuchus within the clade Sphagesauridae based on a phylogenetic analysis of basal mesoeucrocodylians.(More)
The skull of Acrochordus has been characterized by the absence of a crista circumfenestralis (a synapomorphy shared by all snakes), and by the absence of a recessus scalae tympani that in other squamates forms by subdivision of the embryonic metotic fissure. These traits have variably been identified as either plesiomorphic or paedomorphic. The study of the(More)
Inferring the evolutionary and biogeographic history of taxa occurring in a particular region is one way to determine the processes by which the biodiversity of that region originated. Tree boas of the genus Corallus are an ancient clade and occur throughout Central and South America and the Lesser Antilles, making it an excellent group for investigating(More)
Macrostomatan snakes, one of the most diverse extant clades of squamates, display an impressive arsenal of cranial features to consume a vast array of preys. In the absence of indisputable fossil representatives of this clade with well-preserved skulls, the mode and timing of these extraordinary morphological novelties remain obscure. Here, we report the(More)
SETTING The National Tuberculosis Programmes in Egypt and Syria. OBJECTIVES To calculate the costs and effectiveness of alternative ways of implementing TB control in Egypt and Syria, in order to illustrate the factors influencing the cost-effectiveness of TB treatment in middle-income countries. DESIGN We compared the costs and cure rates in Egypt and(More)
Efficient venom delivery systems are known to occur only in varanoid lizards and advanced colubroidean snakes among squamate reptiles. Although components of these venomous systems might have been present in a common ancestor, the two lineages independently evolved strikingly different venom gland systems. In snakes, venom is produced exclusively by serous(More)