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Recent evidence suggests that the microbial community in the human intestine may play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. We examined 184,094 sequences of microbial 16S rRNA genes from PCR amplicons by using the 454 pyrosequencing technology to compare the microbial community structures of 9 individuals, 3 in each of the categories of normal(More)
Water treatment technologies are needed that can remove perchlorate from drinking water without introducing organic chemicals that stimulate bacterial growth in water distribution systems. Hydrogen is an ideal energy source for bacterial degradation of perchlorate as it leaves no organic residue and is sparingly soluble. We describe here the isolation of a(More)
Obesity results from alterations in the body's regulation of energy intake, expenditure, and storage. Recent evidence, primarily from investigations in animal models, suggests that the gut microbiota affects nutrient acquisition and energy regulation. Its composition has also been shown to differ in lean vs obese animals and humans. In this article, we(More)
A mesophilic unsaturated flow (trickle bed) reactor was designed and tested for H2 production via fermentation of glucose. The reactor consisted of a column packed with glass beads and inoculated with a pure culture (Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824). A defined medium containing glucose was fed at a flow rate of 1.6 mL/min (0.096 L/h) into the capped(More)
We compared the microbial community structures that developed in the biofilm anode of two microbial electrolysis cells fed with ethanol, a fermentable substrate-one where methanogenesis was allowed and another in which it was completely inhibited with 2-bromoethane sulfonate. We observed a three-way syntrophy among ethanol fermenters, acetate-oxidizing(More)
The sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) is a widespread feature of continental margins, representing a diffusion-controlled interface where there is enhanced microbial activity. SMTZ microbial activity is commonly associated with the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), which is carried out by syntrophic associations between sulfate-reducing bacteria(More)
Hydrogen gas (approximately 60% H(2)) was produced in a continuous flow bioreactor inoculated with heat-treated soil, and fed synthetic wastewater containing glucose (9.5 g l(-1)). The pH in the bioreactor was maintained at 5.5 to inhibit consumption of H(2) by methanogens. The objective of this study was to characterize bacterial communities in the reactor(More)
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) employ microorganisms to recover electric energy from organic matter. However, fundamental knowledge of electrochemically active bacteria is still required to maximize MFCs power output for practical applications. This review presents microbiological and electrochemical techniques to help researchers choose the appropriate(More)
Activated sludge acclimated to biodegrade phenol was allowed to attach on and in light porous ceramic carriers and to function as a biofilm in a photolytic circulating-bed bioreactor (PCBBR). Phenol degradation in the PCBBR was investigated following three protocols: photolysis with ultraviolet light alone (P), biodegradation alone (B), and the two(More)
Recent studies showed that the chlorinated solvents trichloroethene (TCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), and chloroform (CF) were reductively dehalogenated in a H(2)-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) under denitrifying conditions. Here, we describe a detailed phylogenetic characterization of MBfR biofilm communities having distinctly different metabolic(More)