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In female mammals, most genes on one X chromosome are silenced as a result of X-chromosome inactivation. However, some genes escape X-inactivation and are expressed from both the active and inactive X chromosome. Such genes are potential contributors to sexually dimorphic traits, to phenotypic variability among females heterozygous for X-linked conditions,(More)
We have combined long synthetic arrays of alpha satellite DNA with telomeric DNA and genomic DNA to generate artificial chromosomes in human HT1080 cells. The resulting linear microchromosomes contain exogenous alpha satellite DNA, are mitotically and cytogenetically stable in the absence of selection for up to six months in culture, bind centromere(More)
X chromosome inactivation in mammalian females results in the cis-limited transcriptional inactivity of most of the genes on one X chromosome. The XIST gene is unique among X-linked genes in being expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome. Human XIST cDNAs containing at least eight exons and totaling 17 kb have been isolated and sequenced within(More)
We report the identification and characterization of a family of repeated restriction fragments whose molecular organization is apparently specific to the human X chromosome. This fragment, identified as an ethidium bromide-staining 2.0 kilobase (kb) band in BamHI-digested DNA from a Chinese hamster-human somatic cell hybrid containing a human X chromosome,(More)
The definition of centromeres of human chromosomes requires a complete genomic understanding of these regions. Toward this end, we report integration of physical mapping, genetic, and functional approaches, together with sequencing of selected regions, to define the centromere of the human X chromosome and to explore the evolution of sequences responsible(More)
  • H F Willard
  • 1998
Successful construction of artificial chromosomes is an important step for studies to elucidate the DNA elements necessary for chromosome structure and function. A roadblock to developing a tractable system in multicellular organisms, including humans, is the poorly understood nature of centromeres. Progress, has been made in defining the satellite DNA that(More)
A collection of human Y-derived cosmid clones was screened with a plasmid insert containing a member of the human X chromosome alphoid repeat family, DXZ1. Two positive cosmids were isolated and the repeats they contained were investigated by Southern blotting, in situ hybridization and sequence analysis. On hybridization to human genomic DNAs, the expected(More)
X-chromosome inactivation results in the cis-limited dosage compensation of genes on one of the pair of X chromosomes in mammalian females. Although most X-linked genes are believed to be subject to inactivation, several are known to be expressed from both active and inactive X chromosomes. Here we describe an X-linked gene with a novel expression(More)
Restriction endonuclease analysis of human genomic DNA has previously revealed several prominent repeated DNA families defined by regularly spaced enzyme recognition sites. One of these families, termed alpha satellite DNA, was originally identified as tandemly repeated 340- or 680-base pair (bp) EcoRI fragments that hybridize to the centromeric regions of(More)