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The XIST gene is implicated in X chromosome inactivation, yet the RNA contains no apparent open reading frame. An accumulation of XIST RNA is observed near its site of transcription, the inactive X chromosome (Xi). A series of molecular cytogenetic studies comparing properties of XIST RNA to other protein coding RNAs, support a critical distinction for XIST(More)
In female mammals, most genes on one X chromosome are silenced as a result of X-chromosome inactivation. However, some genes escape X-inactivation and are expressed from both the active and inactive X chromosome. Such genes are potential contributors to sexually dimorphic traits, to phenotypic variability among females heterozygous for X-linked conditions,(More)
The definition of centromeres of human chromosomes requires a complete genomic understanding of these regions. Toward this end, we report integration of physical mapping, genetic, and functional approaches, together with sequencing of selected regions, to define the centromere of the human X chromosome and to explore the evolution of sequences responsible(More)
X chromosome inactivation in mammalian females results in the cis-limited transcriptional inactivity of most of the genes on one X chromosome. The XIST gene is unique among X-linked genes in being expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome. Human XIST cDNAs containing at least eight exons and totaling 17 kb have been isolated and sequenced within(More)
The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination(More)
In mammals, equal dosage of gene products encoded by the X chromosome in male and female cells is achieved by X inactivation. Although X-chromosome inactivation represents the most extensive example known of long range cis gene regulation, the mechanism by which thousands of genes on only one of a pair of identical chromosomes are turned off is poorly(More)
X-chromosome inactivation results in the cis-limited dosage compensation of genes on one of the pair of X chromosomes in mammalian females. Although most X-linked genes are believed to be subject to inactivation, several are known to be expressed from both active and inactive X chromosomes. Here we describe an X-linked gene with a novel expression(More)
The extent to which variation in chromatin structure and transcription factor binding may influence gene expression, and thus underlie or contribute to variation in phenotype, is unknown. To address this question, we cataloged both individual-to-individual variation and differences between homologous chromosomes within the same individual (allele-specific(More)
  • C J Brown, R G Lafreniere, V E Powers, G Sebastio, A Ballabio, A L Pettigrew +4 others
  • 1991
X-chromosome inactivation results in the strictly cis-limited inactivation of many but not all genes on one of the two X chromosomes during early development in somatic cells of mammalian females. One feature of virtually all models of X inactivation is the existence of an X-inactivation centre (XIC) required in cis for inactivation to occur. This concept(More)
A significant number of human X-linked genes escape X chromosome inactivation and are thus expressed from both the active and inactive X chromosomes. The basis for escape from inactivation and the potential role of the X chromosome primary DNA sequence in determining a gene's X inactivation status is unclear. Using a combination of the X chromosome sequence(More)