Huntington F. Willard

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The extent to which variation in chromatin structure and transcription factor binding may influence gene expression, and thus underlie or contribute to variation in phenotype, is unknown. To address this question, we cataloged both individual-to-individual variation and differences between homologous chromosomes within the same individual (allele-specific(More)
A significant number of human X-linked genes escape X chromosome inactivation and are thus expressed from both the active and inactive X chromosomes. The basis for escape from inactivation and the potential role of the X chromosome primary DNA sequence in determining a gene's X inactivation status is unclear. Using a combination of the X chromosome sequence(More)
Chromatin on the mammalian inactive X chromosome differs in a number of ways from that on the active X. One protein, macroH2A, whose amino terminus is closely related to histone H2A, is enriched on the heterochromatic inactive X chromosome in female cells. Here, we report the identification and localization of a novel and more distant histone variant,(More)
The human genome sequence remains incomplete, with multimegabase-sized gaps representing the endogenous centromeres and other heterochromatic regions. Available sequence-based studies within these sites in the genome have demonstrated a role in centromere function and chromosome pairing, necessary to ensure proper chromosome segregation during cell(More)
The methylation of cytosines in CpG dinucleotides is essential for cellular differentiation and the progression of many cancers, and it plays an important role in gametic imprinting. To assess variation and inheritance of genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation simultaneously in humans, we applied reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) to(More)
Lemurs and the other strepsirrhine primates are of great interest to the primate genomics community due to their phylogenetic placement as the sister lineage to all other primates. Previous attempts to resolve the phylogeny of lemurs employed limited mitochondrial or small nuclear data sets, with many relationships poorly supported or entirely unresolved.(More)
BACKGROUND Centromeres are cis-acting chromosomal domains that direct kinetochore formation, enabling faithful chromosome segregation. Centromeric regions of higher eukaryotes are structurally complex, consisting of various epigenetically modified chromatin types including specialized chromatin at the kinetochore itself, pericentromeric heterochromatin, and(More)
BACKGROUND In recent years, the completion of the Human Genome Project and other rapid advances in genomics have led to increasing anticipation of an era of genomic and personalized medicine, in which an individual's health is optimized through the use of all available patient data, including data on the individual's genome and its downstream products.(More)
One of several features acquired by chromatin of the inactive X chromosome (Xi) is enrichment for the core histone H2A variant macroH2A within a distinct nuclear structure referred to as a macrochromatin body (MCB). In addition to localizing to the MCB, macroH2A accumulates at a perinuclear structure centered at the centrosome. To better understand the(More)
There is tremendous potential for genome sequencing to improve clinical diagnosis and care once it becomes routinely accessible, but this will require formalizing research methods into clinical best practices in the areas of sequence data generation, analysis, interpretation and reporting. The CLARITY Challenge was designed to spur convergence in methods(More)