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Digastric muscle (DGM) is a powerful jaw-opening muscle that participates in chewing, swallowing, breathing, and speech. For better understanding of its contractile properties, five pairs of adult human DGMs were obtained from autopsies and processed with immunocytochemistry and/or immunoblotting. Monoclonal antibodies against alpha-cardiac, slow tonic,(More)
Some adult cranial muscles have been reported to contain unusual myosin heavy-chain (MHC) isoforms (i.e., slow-tonic, alpha-cardiac, embryonic, and neonatal), which exhibit distinct contractile properties. In this study, adult human mylohyoid (MH) muscles obtained from autopsies were investigated to detect the unusual MHC isoforms. For comparison, the(More)
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by cardinal motor manifestations and CNS pathology. Current drug therapies can often stabilize these cardinal motor symptoms, and attention has shifted to the other motor and nonmotor symptoms of PD that are resistant to drug therapy. Dysphagia in PD is perhaps the most important(More)
Little is known about the specializations of human tongue muscles. In this study, myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) histochemical staining was used to study the percentage and distribution of slow twitch muscle fibers (slow MFs) within tongue muscles of four neurologically normal human adults and specimens from a 2-year-old human, a newborn(More)
The cricopharyngeus (CP) muscle is a major component of the upper sphincter of the esophagus. Its physiology is complex; a variety of reflexes maintain CP sustained contraction except during swallowing, when it relaxes to allow a food bolus to pass into the esophagus. In order to understand CP function, we previously studied the normal adult human CP and(More)
The functional upper esophageal sphincter (UES) is composed of the cricopharyngeus muscle (CP), the most inferior part of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor (iIPC), and the upper esophagus (UE). This sphincter is collapsed and exhibits sustained muscle activity in the resting state; it only relaxes and opens during swallowing, vomiting, and belching. The(More)
Dysphagia is very common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and often leads to aspiration pneumonia, the most common cause of death in PD. Current therapies are largely ineffective for dysphagia. Because pharyngeal sensation normally triggers the swallowing reflex, we examined pharyngeal sensory nerves in PD patients for Lewy pathology.Sensory nerves(More)
Dysphagia (impaired swallowing) is common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and is related to aspiration pneumonia, the primary cause of death in PD. Therapies that ameliorate the limb motor symptoms of PD are ineffective for dysphagia. This suggests that the pathophysiology of PD dysphagia may differ from that affecting limb muscles, but little is(More)
OBJECTIVE Neonatal rat astrocytes transplanted into host brains migrate in specific patterns, which are determined by the developmental stage of the host brain and the region of implantation. We hypothesized that the differentiation state of the implanted astrocytes could also affect astrocyte migration. METHODS Astrocytes derived from neonatal rats (1-4(More)
Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) is a long muscle with two bellies, sternomastoid (SM) and cleidomastoid (CM) in the lateral side of the neck. It has been widely used as muscle and myocutaneous flap for reconstruction of oral cavity and facial defects and as a candidate for reinnervation studies. Therefore, exact neuroanatomy of the SCM is critical for guiding(More)