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This article evaluates and compares the forecasting performance of three international organizations: the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. The annual forecasts made by the United Nations in the period of 1981-2011 are found to be fairly robust, in terms of bias and efficiency. In comparison, the forecasting performance of(More)
Trade shocks are defined here as net gains or losses from trade caused by changes in international prices and in the volume of goods and services that are traded internationally. It relates to shifts in global markets typically outside of the influence of individual countries. Observed data to measure the impact of world market shifts on trade balances of(More)
To assess the performance of plate-fin heat sinks with the introduction of a shield in a cross flow, we analyzed the surface temperature of the base of the heat sink with an infrared thermograph to determine the effects of shield, fin height, fin width and Reynolds number on the thermal resistance. The introduction of a shield decreases the bypass flow(More)
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