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ErbB2 has been shown to activate signaling molecules that may regulate glucose metabolism. However, there is no evidence reported to directly link ErbB2 to glycolysis, and the mechanism underlying ErbB2-enhanced glycolysis is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanism of ErbB2 in regulating glycolysis. We found that(More)
The idea that tumors must "escape" from immune recognition contains the implicit assumption that tumors can be destroyed by immune responses either spontaneously or as the result of immunotherapeutic intervention. Simply put, there is no need for tumor escape without immunological pressure. Here, we review evidence supporting the immune escape hypothesis(More)
cDNAs encoding TCR alpha- and beta-chains specific for HLA-A2-restricted cancer-testis Ag NY-ESO-1 were cloned using a 5'RACE method from RNA isolated from a CTL generated by in vitro stimulation of PBMC with modified NY-ESO-1-specific peptide (p157-165, 9V). Functionality of the cloned TCR was confirmed by RNA electroporation of primary PBL. cDNA for these(More)
HLA class I-restricted peptides are often used in peptide vaccine regimens. There is strong evidence that many of these peptides can generate specific CD8 T-cell responses in vivo; however, only occasional objective clinical responses have been reported. To test whether provision of "help" would enhance antitumor immunity, the authors initiated a clinical(More)
Tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-2 is not only expressed on glioma cells, but is naturally processed and presented by their surface MHC molecules and is recognized by TRP-2-specific cytotoxic T cells. After active immunotherapy, we detected TRP-2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity in patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Tumor(More)
The authors describe a patient who experienced recurrence of metastatic melanoma after an initial dramatic response to immunotherapy using peptides derived from gp100, MART-1, and tyrosinase emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, and present data to support the hypothesis that the progression of disease in this patient was due to in vivo(More)
Objective clinical responses have been observed in approximately 50% of patients who received non-myeloablative chemotherapy prior to the adoptive transfer of autologous melanoma-reactive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Recent studies carried out through the use of antibodies directed against T-cell-receptor beta chain variable region (TRBV)(More)
Gene silencing resulting from aberrant DNA methylation can lead to tumorigenesis. Therefore, drugs that inhibit or interfere with DNA methylation have been used to reactivate and induce silenced gene re-expression in malignancies. Two demethylating agents, azacitidine and decitabine, are approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) by the(More)