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An association between air pollution and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality has been reported, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. The authors examined short-term associations between ambient pollutants (particulate matter less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide) and(More)
Spatial estimations are increasingly used to estimate geocoded ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations in epidemiologic studies because measures of daily PM concentrations are unavailable in most U.S. locations. This study was conducted to a) assess the feasibility of large-scale kriging estimations of daily residential-level ambient PM(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with the development of myocardial infarction (MI) among elderly Americans. DESIGN Population-based cross-sectional and cohort study. PARTICIPANTS Five percent random sample of 2000 to 2003 Medicare enrollees. METHODS The cross-sectional study included the first(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Assess the prevalence based on clinically meaningful criteria (i.e., blood pressure) and identify risk factors of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in a representative sample of elementary school children. DESIGN A random sample of the local elementary school children (K-5) were assessed using a two-phased strategy. In phase I a brief(More)
OBJECTIVES This study examined the use of seclusion and mechanical restraint from 1990 to 2000 and the rate of staff injuries from patient assaults from 1998 to 2000 in a state hospital system. METHODS Records of patients older than 18 years who were civilly committed to one of the nine state hospitals in Pennsylvania were included in the analyses. Two(More)
BACKGROUND Vasoplegic syndrome is a form of vasodilatory shock that can occur after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We hypothesized that the severity and duration of the decline in mean arterial pressure immediately after CPB is begun can be used as a predictor of patients will develop vasoplegia in the immediate post-CPB period and of poor clinical outcome.(More)
BACKGROUND Noninvasive (NIBP) and intraarterial (ABP) blood pressure monitoring are used under different circumstances and may yield different values. The authors endeavored to characterize these differences and hypothesized that there could be differences in interventions associated with the use of ABP alone ([ABP]) versus ABP in combination with NIBP(More)
To elucidate the health effects of air pollution, the short-term association of criteria pollutants (particles <10 microm in diameter [PM(10)], O(3), CO, NO(2), and SO(2)) with hemostatic and inflammatory markers were examined using a population-based sample of 10,208 middle-age males and females of the biracial cohort of Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities(More)
Data analysts facing study design questions on a regular basis could derive substantial benefit from a straightforward and unified approach to power calculations for generalized linear models. Many current proposals for dealing with binary, ordinal, or count outcomes are conceptually or computationally demanding, limited in terms of accommodating(More)
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS Deliberate hypotension, reverse Trendelenburg position, and hyperventilation are techniques utilized during functional endoscopic sinus surgery to attempt to reduce surgical bleeding. These methods may predispose patients to cerebral ischemia. Cerebral oximetry has not been investigated extensively within otolaryngologic surgery. Our(More)