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OBJECTIVES This study examined the use of seclusion and mechanical restraint from 1990 to 2000 and the rate of staff injuries from patient assaults from 1998 to 2000 in a state hospital system. METHODS Records of patients older than 18 years who were civilly committed to one of the nine state hospitals in Pennsylvania were included in the analyses. Two(More)
An association between air pollution and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality has been reported, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. The authors examined short-term associations between ambient pollutants (particulate matter less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide) and(More)
Spatial estimations are increasingly used to estimate geocoded ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations in epidemiologic studies because measures of daily PM concentrations are unavailable in most U.S. locations. This study was conducted to a) assess the feasibility of large-scale kriging estimations of daily residential-level ambient PM(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Assess the prevalence based on clinically meaningful criteria (i.e., blood pressure) and identify risk factors of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in a representative sample of elementary school children. DESIGN A random sample of the local elementary school children (K-5) were assessed using a two-phased strategy. In phase I a brief(More)
IL-6 and TNF alpha secretion is increased by sleep loss or restriction. IL-6 secretion progressively increases with age, yet its association with decreased quality and quantity of sleep in old adults is unknown. This study examined the alteration of 24-h secretory pattern of IL-6, TNF alpha, and cortisol in 15 young and 13 old normal sleepers who were(More)
The aims of this study were to: (i) assess gender differences of objective sleep patterns in a general population sample; (ii) evaluate the effects of menopause and hormone treatment (HT) on the sleep of the same cohort; and (iii) examine gender differences in sleep resilience towards external stressors. The participants were (i) 1324 subjects without sleep(More)
BACKGROUND Vasoplegic syndrome is a form of vasodilatory shock that can occur after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We hypothesized that the severity and duration of the decline in mean arterial pressure immediately after CPB is begun can be used as a predictor of patients will develop vasoplegia in the immediate post-CPB period and of poor clinical outcome.(More)
We used 10 years of longitudinal data from Penn State Young Women's Health Study to explore predictors of adult bone structural geometry and strength. One hundred twelve participants were enrolled in the study at age 12. We report findings on the 76 participants who remained in the study for 10 years. Measurements were recorded biannually for the first 4(More)
To elucidate the health effects of air pollution, the short-term association of criteria pollutants (particles <10 μm in diameter [PM10], O3, CO, NO2, and SO2) with hemostatic and inflammatory markers were examined using a population-based sample of 10,208 middle-age males and females of the biracial cohort of Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC)(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with the development of myocardial infarction (MI) among elderly Americans. DESIGN Population-based cross-sectional and cohort study. PARTICIPANTS Five percent random sample of 2000 to 2003 Medicare enrollees. METHODS The cross-sectional study included the first(More)