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The ability of the water fern Azolla japonica to remediate phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), and iron (Fe) contamination, and its physiological responses to three common sources of water pollution (landfill leachate, swine lagoon sewage, and fish farm sewage) and standard solution were investigated. The biomass, water content, and chlorophyll content of Azolla(More)
BACKGROUND Tinnitus is a common condition and frequently can be annoying to affected individuals. We investigated the prevalence and associated factors for tinnitus in South Korea using the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) during 2009-2011. METHODS KNHANES is a cross-sectional survey of the civilian,(More)
OBJECTIVES Experimental models are of importance to study the pathogenesis of middle ear cholesteatoma, however, they were not established until now. We aimed to develop in vitro model of middle ear cholesteatoma using primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts isolated from cholesteatoma tissue. HaCaT cell line was used as a "skin equivalent" and to compare the(More)
Ion channels, such as the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), are essential for maintaining a fluid-free middle ear cavity by controlling periciliary fluid. Deviations from the normal volume or compositions of periciliary fluid are probably responsible for otitis media with effusion. To elucidate the physiologic roles of the ENaC and cystic fibrosis(More)
HYPOTHESIS Epithelial sodium channels are expressed in cultured human endolymphatic sac (ES) epithelial (HESE) cells and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) expression is suppressed by interleukin 1beta. BACKGROUND The ES is part of the membranous labyrinth in the inner ear that plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of the endolymphatic fluid(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the capability of preoperative evaluations in predicting the precise anatomic origin of intracanalicular tumors. STUDY DESIGN We conducted a retrospective case review. SETTING Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS A total of 11 patients (8 men and 3 women, 26-70 years old) with intracanalicular tumors who were treated surgically(More)
OBJECTIVES A non-progressive and conductive hearing loss with normal eardrum, but no history of trauma and infection, is highly suggestive of a congenital ossicular malformation. Among ossicular anomalies, stapes anomaly is the most common. The purpose of this study is to describe patterns of stapes anomaly and to analyze its surgical outcome with special(More)
Ti conical island structures were fabricated using photolithography and the reactive ion etching method. The resulting conical island structures were anodized in ethylene glycol solution containing 0.25 wt% NH4F and 2 vol% H2O, and conical islands composed of TiO2 nanotubes were successfully formed on the Ti foils. The conical islands composed of TiO2(More)
OBJECTIVES Mastoid obliteration is used to obliterate the mastoid cavity following a mastoidectomy or to prevent the formation of a retraction pocket. This study evaluated the effectiveness of β-tricalcium phosphate and polyphosphate (β-TPP) for mastoid obliteration in middle ear surgeries in prospective human and animal studies. METHODS Twenty patients(More)
TiO2 micro-flowers were made to bloom on Ti foil by the anodic oxidation of Ti-protruding dots with a cylindrical shape. Arrays of the Ti-protruding dots were prepared by photolithography, which consisted of coating the photoresists, attaching a patterned mask, illuminating with UV light, etching the Ti surface by reactive ion etching (RIE), and stripping(More)