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The ganglion cell density of the quail's retina was studied in sections and whole mounts. Two regions of high ganglion cell density were found, corresponding to an afoveate area centralis and an area dorsalis. Oil droplets were found to be isotropically distributed throughout the retina. It is proposed that the significance of such retinal regional(More)
The anatomical characteristics of the avian visual system are well known. However, there are wide gaps in our knowledge with respect to the physiological characteristics of their visual system. For example, we lack both an operational identification of the different ganglion cell types present in the retinae of birds, and a description of their presumptive(More)
Birds exhibit a variable retinal organization in terms of foveas and areas of high cell density. The distribution of these retinal structures in different species does not follow phylogenetic lines. In order to study this phenomenon, we presented chickens and pigeons with a luminous bar that could be moved at different speeds and directions in the visual(More)
The avian thalamic ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (GLv) was studied by light microscopic techniques in order to understand its anatomy, neuronal composition, and the nature of its retinal and tectal afferents. The avian GLv is of considerable interest because physiological experiments show that it is the brain structure with the highest percentage of(More)
Extracellular recordings were made from cells in the ventral lateral geniculate (GLv) of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), and their responses studied with chromatic stimuli. A total of 156 units were studied, and of these, 124 were found to be optimally responsive to changes in hue, and not to changes of contrast or motion of the stimuli in(More)
We propose that to understand the biological and neurophysiological processes that give rise to human mental phenomena it is necessary to consider them as behavioral relational phenomena. In particular, we propose that: a) these phenomena take place in the relational manner of living that human language constitutes, and b) that they arise as recursive(More)
analyze the biological foundations of human cognition. A crucial component of their arguments is a simple but profound aphorism: Everything said is said by someone. It follows from this that any concept, idea, belief, definition, drawing, poem, or piece of music, has to be produced by a living human being, constrained by the peculiarities of his or her body(More)