Huizhong W Tao

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In the developing frog visual system, topographic refinement of the retinotectal projection depends on electrical activity. In vivo whole-cell recording from developing Xenopus tectal neurons shows that convergent retinotectal synapses undergo activity-dependent cooperation and competition following correlated pre- and postsynaptic spiking within a narrow(More)
Cortical inhibition plays an important role in shaping neuronal processing. The underlying synaptic mechanisms remain controversial. Here, in vivo whole-cell recordings from neurons in the rat primary auditory cortex revealed that the frequency tuning curve of inhibitory input was broader than that of excitatory input. This results in relatively stronger(More)
Synaptic inhibition plays an important role in shaping receptive field (RF) properties in the visual cortex. However, the underlying mechanisms remain not well understood, partly because of difficulties in systematically studying functional properties of cortical inhibitory neurons in vivo. Here, we established two-photon imaging guided cell-attached(More)
Neurons in the recipient layers of sensory cortices receive excitatory input from two major sources: the feedforward thalamocortical and recurrent intracortical inputs. To address their respective functional roles, we developed a new method for silencing cortex by competitively activating GABA(A) while blocking GABA(B) receptors. In the rat primary auditory(More)
The receptive field (RF) of single visual neurons undergoes progressive refinement during development. It remains largely unknown how the excitatory and inhibitory inputs on single developing neurons are refined in a coordinated manner to allow the formation of functionally correct circuits. Using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording from Xenopus tectal(More)
During development of the visual system, the pattern of visual inputs may have an instructive role in refining developing neural circuits. How visual inputs of specific spatiotemporal patterns shape the circuit development remains largely unknown. We report here that, in the developing Xenopus retinotectal system, the receptive field of tectal neurons can(More)
Intensity-tuned neurons, characterized by their nonmonotonic response-level function, may play important roles in the encoding of sound intensity-related information. The synaptic mechanisms underlying intensity tuning remain unclear. Here, in vivo whole-cell recordings in rat auditory cortex revealed that intensity-tuned neurons, mostly clustered in a(More)
Persistent synaptic modifications are essential for experience-dependent refinement of developing circuits. However, in the developing Xenopus retinotectal system, activity-induced synaptic modifications were quickly reversed either by subsequent spontaneous activity in the tectum or by exposure to random visual inputs. This reversal depended on the burst(More)
Cortical sensory processing is modulated by behavioral and cognitive states. How this modulation is achieved by changing synaptic circuits remains largely unknown. In awake mouse auditory cortex, we found that sensory-evoked spike responses of layer 2/3 (L2/3) excitatory cells were scaled down with preserved sensory tuning when mice transitioned from(More)
Somatostatin-expressing inhibitory (SOM) neurons in the sensory cortex consist mostly of Martinotti cells, which project ascending axons to layer 1. Due to their sparse distribution, the representational properties of these neurons remain largely unknown. By two-photon imaging guided cell-attached recordings, we characterized visual response and receptive(More)