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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
OBJECTIVE Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have a high risk of developing NIDDM. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diet and exercise interventions in those with IGT may delay the development of NIDDM, i.e., reduce the incidence of NIDDM, and thereby reduce the overall incidence of diabetic complications, such as(More)
Deregulation of cell proliferation is a hallmark of neoplastic transformation. Alteration in growth control pathways must translate into changes in the cell-cycle regulatory machinery, but the mechanism by which this occurs is largely unknown. Compared with normal human fibroblasts, cells transformed with a variety of viral oncoproteins show striking(More)
To address the function of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) in mammalian development, mice with a targeted deletion of the Bmp2 mature region were generated using embryonic stem cell technology. This mutation caused embryonic lethality when homozygous. Mutant embryos failed to close the proamniotic canal, which caused the malformation of the(More)
The TOR protein kinases (TOR1 and TOR2 in yeast; mTOR/FRAP/RAFT1 in mammals) promote cellular proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, but their role in development is poorly understood. Here, we show that the Drosophila TOR homolog dTOR is required cell autonomously for normal growth and proliferation during larval development, and for(More)
It is generally perceived that biodiversity is better protected from human activities after an area is designated as a protected area. However, we found that this common perception was not true in Wolong Nature Reserve (southwestern China), which was established in 1975 as a "flagship" protected area for the world-renowned endangered giant pandas. Analyses(More)
Plants constantly monitor their light environment in order to grow and develop optimally, in part through use of the phytochromes, which sense red/far-red light. A phytochrome binding protein, PKS1 (phytochrome kinase substrate 1), was identified that is a substrate for light-regulated phytochrome kinase activity in vitro. In vivo experiments suggest that(More)
To investigate the molecular basis of PTEN-mediated tumor suppression, we introduced a null mutation into the mouse Pten gene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Pten-/- ES cells exhibited an increased growth rate and proliferated even in the absence of serum. ES cells lacking PTEN function also displayed advanced entry into S phase.(More)
In nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), as well as glycine, GABAA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), serotonin (5-HT3), and GluCl glutamate receptors, a leucine residue at the approximate midpoint of the M2 transmembrane domain (the 9' position) is conserved across most known subunits. Structural data for the nAChR suggest that the Leu 9' residues occupy a(More)
BACKGROUND The goal of this study was to model the functional connectivity of the neural systems that subserve attention and impulse control. Proper performance of the Stroop Word-Color Interference Task requires both attention and impulse control. METHODS Word-color interference was studied in 34 normal adult subjects using functional magnetic resonance(More)