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The expansion of human neural stem cells in vitro might overcome the poor donor supply of human fetal neural tissue in transplantation for Parkinson's disease. However, the differentiation of human neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons has proven difficult. In the present study, we investigated the effects of cytokines, trophic factors of(More)
Neurogenesis in the hippocampus continues throughout adult life and can be regulated by the local microenvironment. To determine whether denervation stimulates neurogenesis in hippocampus, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of local neural stem cells (NSCs) in dentate gyrus was investigated after fimbria fornix transection. In the denervated(More)
Neural stem cells (NSCs) tranplantation has great potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the usage of NSCs is limited because the differentiation of NSCs into specific dopaminergic neurons has proven difficult. We have recently demonstrated that transgenic expression of Nurr1 could induce the(More)
Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is a key cellular event in the development of liver fibrosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) has been shown to function as a key transcription regulator linked to suppressing HSC activation. Compelling evidence indicates that leptin plays a unique role in the development of liver fibrosis.(More)
Fetal brain tissue can be used in cell replacement therapy for PD (Parkinson's disease), but there is a poor donor supply of this tissue. NSCs (neural stem cells) may overcome this problem as they can be isolated and expanded in vitro. However, the usage of NSCs is limited because the differentiation of NSCs into specific dopaminergic neurons has proven(More)
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are pluripotent cells capable of differentiation into dopaminergic (DA) neurons, which are the major cell types damaged in Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, NSCs are considered the most promising cell source for cell replacement therapy of PD. However, the poor differentiation and maturation of DA neurons and decreased cell(More)
Brn-4, a member of the homeobox family of transcription factors, has previously been implicated in the regeneration and repair of denervated striatum. We investigated the effects of Brn-4 on the differentiation and development of neural stem cells (NSCs) from E16 rat hippocampus. Immunocytochemistry revealed that extracts of deafferented hippocampus(More)
A better understanding of metabolic fluxes is important for manipulating microbial metabolism toward desired end products, or away from undesirable by-products. A mutant strain, Gluconacetobacter xylinus AX2-16, was obtained by combined chemical mutation of the parent strain (G. xylinus CGMCC 2955) using DEC (diethyl sulfate) and LiCl. The highest bacterial(More)