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Previously, estimating vocal-tract filters and glottal waves from vowel sounds imposed either the invalid assumption that glottal waves over closed glottal intervals are zero, or parametric models for glottal waves, resulting in biased vocal-tract-filter estimates and glottal-wave estimates lacking information over closed glottal intervals. We obtain(More)
It is known that convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are efficient for optical character recognition (OCR) and many other visual classification tasks. This paper applies error-correcting output coding (ECOC) to the CNN for segmentation-free OCR such that: 1) the CNN target outputs are designed according to code words of length N; 2) the minimum Hamming(More)
Existing methods that estimate the vocal-tract area functions (VTAF) from vocal-tract filters (VTF) using speech signals suffer from inadequate elimination of the glottal wave, and the influence of non-ideal vocal-tract boundary conditions. To minimize these effects on the VTF estimation, we present a method that jointly estimates the glottal wave and the(More)
We present a new method for estimating the vocal-tract area functions from speech signals. First, we point out and correct a long-standing sign error in some literature related to the derivation of the acoustic reflection coefficients of the vocal tract from a speech signal. Next, to eliminate the influence of the glottal wave on the estimation of the(More)
Knowledge about lip and glottal reflection coefficients during phonation is needed to eliminate their distortion effects on the estimates of vocal-tract area functions and glottal waves from vowel sounds. Direct measurements of these coefficients at human mouths are difficult. This paper presents a method for estimating them from vowel sounds. The(More)
The acoustic transfer functions of external ears with or without headphones affect the features of perceived sounds and vary considerably with listeners and headphones. A method for estimating the frequency responses of external-ear transfer functions from the sound at the entrance of a blocked ear canal (or from the input of a headphone) to the sound at(More)