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Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Although measurements of GABA levels in vivo in the human brain using edited proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) have been established for some time, it is has not been established how regional GABA levels vary with age in the normal human brain. In this(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to evaluate a multiplexed massively parallel shotgun sequencing assay for noninvasive trisomy 21 detection using circulating cell-free fetal DNA. STUDY DESIGN Sample multiplexing and cost-optimized reagents were evaluated as improvements to a noninvasive fetal trisomy 21 detection assay. A total of 480 plasma samples from high-risk(More)
BACKGROUND In our previous studies, we found that the sites in prokaryotic genomes which are most susceptible to duplex destabilization under the negative superhelical stresses that occur in vivo are statistically highly significantly associated with intergenic regions that are known or inferred to contain promoters. In this report we investigate how this(More)
We present the first analysis of stress-induced DNA duplex destabilization (SIDD) in a complete chromosome, the Escherichia coli K12 genome. We used a newly developed method to calculate the locations and extents of stress-induced destabilization to single-base resolution at superhelix density sigma = -0.06. We find that SIDD sites in this genome show a(More)
OBJECTIVE Whole-genome sequencing of circulating cell free (ccf) DNA from maternal plasma has enabled noninvasive prenatal testing for common autosomal aneuploidies. The purpose of this study was to extend the detection to include common sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs): [47,XXX], [45,X], [47,XXY], and [47,XYY] syndromes. METHOD Massively parallel(More)
The strategy of using fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) remains unclear if single FMT failed to induce remission. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a designed step-up FMT strategy for the steroid-dependent UC. Fifteen patients with steroid-dependent UC were enrolled, and treated with step-up(More)
Stress-induced DNA duplex destabilization (SIDD) analysis exploits the known structural and energetic properties of DNA to predict sites that are susceptible to strand separation under negative superhelical stress. When this approach was used to calculate the SIDD profile of the entire Escherichia coli K12 genome, it was found that strongly destabilized(More)
The human folate receptor (hFR) type gamma gene is driven by a TATA-less promoter that uses a canonical Sp1 element for basal transcription. Using nuclear extract from 293 (human embryonic) cells, we mapped a second (non-canonical) Sp1 element to which Sp1 bound with a comparable affinity and which overlaps a functional ets binding site (EBS). Mutagenesis(More)
Prokaryotic genomic DNA is generally negatively supercoiled in vivo. Many regulatory processes, including the initiation of transcription, are known to depend on the superhelical state of the DNA substrate. The stresses induced within DNA by negative superhelicity can destabilize the DNA duplex at specific sites. Various experiments have either shown or(More)
OBJECTIVE Sufficient fetal DNA in a maternal plasma sample is required for accurate aneuploidy detection via noninvasive prenatal testing, thus highlighting a need to understand the factors affecting fetal fraction. METHOD The MaterniT21™ PLUS test uses massively parallel sequencing to analyze cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma and detect chromosomal(More)