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It has been speculated that before vertebrates evolved somatic diversity-based adaptive immunity, the germline-encoded diversity of innate immunity may have been more developed. Amphioxus occupies the basal position of the chordate phylum and hence is an important reference to the evolution of vertebrate immunity. Here we report the first comprehensive(More)
C1q is the target recognition protein of the classical complement pathway and a major connecting link between innate and adaptive immunities. Its globular signature domain is also found in a variety of noncomplement protein that can be grouped together as a C1q family. In this study, we have cloned and identified a novel C1q family member in cephalochordate(More)
To investigate the evolution and immune function of C-type lectin in amphioxus, the primitive representative of the chordate phylum, we identified three C-type lectins consisting solely of a carbohydrate recognition domain and N-terminal signal peptide and found that they had distinct express patterns in special tissues and immune response to stimulations(More)
Both amphioxus and the sea urchin encode a complex innate immune gene repertoire in their genomes, but the composition and mechanisms of their innate immune systems, as well as the fundamental differences between two systems, remain largely unexplored. In this study, we dissect the mucosal immune complexity of amphioxus into different(More)
The MyD88-independent pathway, one of the two crucial TLR signaling routes, is thought to be a vertebrate innovation. However, a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) adaptor, designated bbtTICAM, which was identified in the basal chordate amphioxus, links this pathway to invertebrates. The protein architecture of bbtTICAM is similar to that of vertebrate(More)
The caspase family, which plays a central role in apoptosis in metazoans, has undergone an expansion in amphioxus, increasing to 45 members through domain recombination and shuffling. In order to shed light on the conservation and uniqueness of this family in amphioxus, we cloned three representative caspase genes, designated as bbtCaspase-8, bbtCaspase-1/2(More)
A novel F4-carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD)-linker-F3-CRD-type bi-CRD Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense galectin (BbtGal)-L together with its alternatively spliced mono-CRD isoform BbtGal-S from amphioxus intestine was encoded by a 9488-bp unique gene with eight exons and seven introns. The recombinant proteins of BbtGal were found to have(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the impacts of pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and gestational weight gain(GWG) on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS We adopted a prospective cohort study with cluster sampling in single pregnant women, who were not with hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia or other diseases in the previous history, neither did they have diseases of heart,(More)
The ficolin-mediated complement pathway plays an important role in vertebrate immunity, but it is not clear whether this pathway exists in invertebrates. Here we identified homologs of ficolin pathway components from the cephalochordate amphioxus and investigated whether they had been co-opted into a functional ficolin pathway. Four of these homologs,(More)
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