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It has been speculated that before vertebrates evolved somatic diversity-based adaptive immunity, the germline-encoded diversity of innate immunity may have been more developed. Amphioxus occupies the basal position of the chordate phylum and hence is an important reference to the evolution of vertebrate immunity. Here we report the first comprehensive(More)
To investigate the evolution and immune function of C-type lectin in amphioxus, the primitive representative of the chordate phylum, we identified three C-type lectins consisting solely of a carbohydrate recognition domain and N-terminal signal peptide and found that they had distinct express patterns in special tissues and immune response to stimulations(More)
C1q is the target recognition protein of the classical complement pathway and a major connecting link between innate and adaptive immunities. Its globular signature domain is also found in a variety of noncomplement protein that can be grouped together as a C1q family. In this study, we have cloned and identified a novel C1q family member in cephalochordate(More)
BACKGROUND The caspase family, which plays a central role in apoptosis in metazoans, has undergone an expansion in amphioxus, increasing to 45 members through domain recombination and shuffling. RESULTS In order to shed light on the conservation and uniqueness of this family in amphioxus, we cloned three representative caspase genes, designated as(More)
We used a multidisciplinary approach to assess the vulnerability of a coupled natural and human (CNH) system in Lanzhou, China. Lanzhou’s urban settlement and expansion depended highly on the waterway of the Yellow River and its surrounding geographic setting. Lanzhou’s dramatic fluctuation of population was linked with its position as a bordering city(More)
This note examines the day-of-the-week effect in Australian daily stock returns at the market and industry levels and for small capitalization stocks from Monday 9 September 1996 to Friday 10 November 2006. A regression-based approach is employed. The results indicate that while the Australian market overall provides no evidence of daily seasonality, there(More)
—Standard map can be employed to shuffle the positions of image pixels to get a totally visual difference from the original images. This paper proposes a new scheme to shuffle the digital images. Different from the conventional schemes, we disorder the pixel positions by the orbits of the Standard map. By setting the initial position, one can get an orbit(More)
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