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Most pathogens initiate their infections at the human mucosal surface. Therefore, mucosal vaccination, especially through oral or intranasal administration routes, is highly desired for infectious diseases. Meanwhile, protein-based antigens provide a safer alternative to the whole pathogen or DNA based ones in vaccine development. However, the unique(More)
Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the function of the fur gene in Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Xv), we(More)
The application of poly(lactic acid) for sustained protein delivery is restricted by the harsh pH inside carriers. In this study, we synthesized a pH-responsive comb-shaped block copolymer, polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether-ε-polylysine-g-poly (lactic acid) (PEP)to deliver protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA)). The PEP nanoparticles could automatically(More)
Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat proteins involved in plant defence. The aim of the current study was to isolate the genomic fragment of PGIP genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and to analyse their sequence variation. Four PGIP genes, namely MsPGIP1, MsPGIP2, MsPGIP3 and MsPGIP4, were discovered using the homology(More)
Common leaf spot (CLS), which is caused by Pseudopeziza medicaginis (Lib.) Sacc., is one of the most serious fungal diseases occurring in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa) worldwide. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are important candidate genes for disease resistance studies in plants. The association between an alfalfa PGIP gene,(More)
In order to improve the sensing performance for cognitive radio, this paper proposes a spectrum sensing method based on Gabor transform. Firstly, a continuous-time signal is transformed into a discrete-time signal, then, the discrete-time signal is converted into Gabor transform by over-sampling. Secondly, the Gabor transform coefficient of the(More)
For double threshold energy detection of cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio, which needs transfer much communication traffic and increases channel bandwidth and energy consumption of cognitive radio network, so an optimizational method is presented for the question in this paper. Depended on the detection probability of the network, while(More)