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Inhibition of angiogenesis is a promising and clinically validated approach for limiting tumor growth and survival. The receptor tyrosine kinase Tie-2 is expressed almost exclusively in the vascular endothelium and is required for developmental angiogenesis and vessel maturation. However, the significance of Tie-2 signaling in tumor angiogenesis is not well(More)
Inhibition of the VEGF signaling pathway has become a valuable approach in the treatment of cancers. Guided by X-ray crystallography and molecular modeling, a series of 2-aminobenzimidazoles and 2-aminobenzoxazoles were identified as potent inhibitors of VEGFR-2 (KDR) in both enzymatic and HUVEC cellular proliferation assays. In this report we describe the(More)
The lymphocyte-specific kinase (Lck) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase of the Src family expressed in T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Genetic evidence in both mice and humans demonstrates that Lck kinase activity is critical for signaling mediated by the T cell receptor (TCR), which leads to normal T cell development and activation. Selective(More)
Casein kinase 1 epsilon (CK1ε) and its closest homologue CK1δ are key regulators of diverse cellular processes. We report two crystal structures of PF4800567, a potent and selective inhibitor of CK1ε, bound to the kinase domains of human CK1ε and CK1δ as well as one apo CK1ε crystal structure. These structures provide a molecular basis for the strong and(More)
The recognition that aberrant angiogenesis contributes to the pathology of inflammatory diseases, cancer, and myocardial ischemia has generated considerable interest in the molecular mechanisms that regulate blood vessel growth. The receptor tyrosine kinase Tie-2 is expressed primarily by vascular endothelial cells and is critical for embryonic(More)
Akt/PKB represents a subfamily of three isoforms from the AGC serine/threonine kinase family. Amplification of Akt activity has been implicated in diseases that involve inappropriate cell survival, including a number of human malignancies. The structure of an inactive and unliganded Akt2 kinase domain reveals several features that distinguish it from other(More)
A novel class of selective Tie-2 inhibitors was derived from a multi-kinase inhibitor 1. By reversing the amide connectivity and incorporating aminotriazine or aminopyridine hinge-binding moieties, excellent Tie-2 potency and KDR selectivity could be achieved with 3-substituted terminal aryl rings. X-ray co-crystal structure analysis aided inhibitor design.(More)
Erythropoietin (EPO) controls the production of red blood cells, so it is important to maintain high levels of EPO activity and half-life. Here, we modified glycosylation sites in human erythropoietin (HuEPO) gene, resulting in proteins with addition of 1-4 glycosylation sites. The modified gene was introduced into CHO cells. The expressed EPO analogs were(More)
The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, and in protection from apoptosis. IGF-1R has been shown to be an appealing target for the treatment of human cancer. Herein, we report the synthesis, structure-activity relationships (SAR), X-ray cocrystal structure and in vivo(More)
The lymphocyte-specific kinase (Lck) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase of the Src family expressed in T cells and NK cells. Genetic evidence in both mice and humans demonstrates that Lck kinase activity is critical for signaling mediated by the T cell receptor (TCR), which leads to normal T cell development and activation. A small molecule inhibitor of Lck(More)