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The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria contains a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) rich outer membrane that acts as the first line of defense for bacterial cells in adverse physical and chemical environments. The LPS macromolecule has a negatively charged oligosaccharide domain that acts as an ionic brush, limiting the permeability of charged chemical agents(More)
Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are vital components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and they act as extremely strong stimulators of innate immunity in diverse eukaryotic species. The primary immunostimulatory center of the LPS molecule is lipid A, a disaccharide-bound lipophilic domain. Considering the broad diversity in bacterial species,(More)
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