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A crucial question in mammalian development is how cells of the early embryo differentiate into distinct cell types. The first decision is taken when cells undertake waves of asymmetric division that generate one daughter on the inside and one on the outside of the embryo. After this division, some cells on the inside remain pluripotent and give rise to the(More)
Myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (OLs) are formed continuously in the healthy adult brain. In this work, we study the function of these late-forming cells and the myelin they produce. Learning a new motor skill (such as juggling) alters the structure of the brain's white matter, which contains many OLs, suggesting that late-born OLs might contribute to motor(More)
Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a major role in the development of the nervous system and contributes to neuronal plasticity. However, its role in myelination remains unclear. Here, we identify the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as an essential driver of myelin gene expression. The selective inhibition of Wnt components by small interfering RNA or dominant-negative(More)
The oligodendrocyte lineage genes (Olig1/2), encoding basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, were first identified in screens for master regulators of oligodendrocyte development. OLIG1 is important for differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursors into myelin-forming oligodendrocytes during development and is thought to play a crucial role in(More)
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in the postnatal mouse corpus callosum (CC) and motor cortex (Ctx) reportedly generate only oligodendrocytes (OLs), whereas those in the piriform cortex may also generate neurons. OPCs have also been subdivided based on their expression of voltage-gated ion channels, ability to respond to neuronal activity, and(More)
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system (CNS). They differentiate from proliferative OL precursor cells that migrate from the embryonic neuroepithelium throughout the developing CNS before associating with axons and elaborating myelin. Recent research into the regulation of OL differentiation has uncovered a(More)
We identified mRNA encoding the ecto-enzyme Enpp6 as a marker of newly forming oligodendrocytes, and used Enpp6 in situ hybridization to track oligodendrocyte differentiation in adult mice as they learned a motor skill (running on a wheel with unevenly spaced rungs). Within just 2.5 h of exposure to the complex wheel, production of Enpp6-expressing immature(More)
Astrocytes, the most abundant cell population in the central nervous system (CNS), are essential for normal neurological function. We show that astrocytes are allocated to spatial domains in mouse spinal cord and brain in accordance with their embryonic sites of origin in the ventricular zone. These domains remain stable throughout life without evidence of(More)
A fundamental feature of central nervous system development is that neurons are generated before glia. In the embryonic spinal cord, for example, a group of neuroepithelial stem cells (NSCs) generates motor neurons (MNs), before switching abruptly to oligodendrocyte precursors (OLPs). We asked how transcription factor OLIG2 participates in this MN-OLP fate(More)
The full-length cDNA encoding a coronatine insensitive-1 (COI1) protein, designated HbCOI1, was isolated for the first time from Hevea brasiliensis by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. HbCOI1 contained a 2,187 bp open reading frame encoding 597 amino acids. The deduced HbCOI1 protein, which showed high identity to COI1 protein of other(More)