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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Glutamate excitotoxicity may be involved in ischaemic injury to the CNS and some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, exerts neuroprotective effects. Here we demonstrated a novel mechanism underlying the neuroprotection induced by donepezil. EXPERIMENTAL(More)
Glutamate excitotoxicity is mediated by intracellular Ca(2+) overload, caspase-3 activation, and ROS generation. Here, we show that curcumin, tannic acid (TA) and (+)-catechin hydrate (CA) all inhibited glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Curcumin inhibited PKC activity, and subsequent phosphorylation of NR1 of the NMDA receptor. As a result,(More)
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an approved treatment for epilepsy and depression and has cognition-enhancing effects in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The hippocampus is widely recognized to be related to epilepsy, depression, and Alzheimer's disease. One possible mechanism of VNS involves its effect on the hippocampus; i.e. it increases the release(More)
Conditioned fear is extinguished if a conditioned animal receives the conditioned stimulus without an unconditioned stimulus. The extinguished fear response can be reinstated after the animal experiences a mild unconditioned stimulus. Although extensive studies on the neuronal circuitry and neurochemical mechanisms leading to fear acquisition and extinction(More)
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