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Nicotine, a major toxic alkaloid in tobacco wastes, is degraded by bacteria, mainly via pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. Previously, we discovered a new hybrid of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways in Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33 and characterized its key enzyme 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine (HSP) hydroxylase. Here, we purified the nicotine(More)
PURPOSE In this study, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy techniques were used to examine whether versican, which is known to bind fibrillin-1, interacts with fibrillin-1 in the ciliary body and vitreous, and whether the versican in this complex binds to hyaluronan. METHODS The new polyclonal antibodies against(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 2/3 is distributed in neurons and glial cells in many regions of the nervous system, but its role in nociceptive processing is unclear. In this study, we examined the mRNA expressions of mGluR2 and mGluR3, by real-time RT-PCR, in the spinal cord. We further investigated the possible involvement of mGluR2/3 and(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a serine/threonine protein kinase, has been regarded as a potential therapeutic target for multiple human cancers. In addition, oxidative stress is closely related to all aspects of cancer. We sought to determine the biological function of lithium, one kind of GSK-3β inhibitors, in the process of reactive oxygen species(More)
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe, common birth defects that result from failure of neural tube closure, but their pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Histone modifications have an important role in gene regulation during fetal development. We therefore hypothesized that the human NTDs may be partly caused by an imbalance in(More)
Glaucoma is an accumulative optic neuropathy resulted from increasing intraocular pressure. Brinzolamide (BRZ) is a kind of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors for glaucoma treatment. In this study, brinzolamide-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (BRZ-HP-β-CD) inclusion complex was prepared by solvent evaporation method to improve the solubility of BRZ and enhance the(More)
Mushrooms can be found in forests worldwide and have long been exploited as resources in developed economies because of their important agro-industrial, medicinal and commercial uses. For less developed countries, such as those within the Greater Mekong Subregion, wild harvesting and mushroom cultivation provides a much-needed alternative source of income(More)
Acute stressors induce changes in numerous behavioral parameters through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Several important hormones in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) play the roles in these stress-induced reactions. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and corticosterone are(More)
Nicotine is a main alkaloid in tobacco and is also the primary toxic compound in tobacco wastes. It can be degraded by bacteria via either pyridine pathway or pyrrolidine pathway. Previously, a fused pathway of the pyridine pathway and the pyrrolidine pathway was proposed for nicotine degradation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33, in which(More)