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We show that DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTis) upregulate immune signaling in cancer through the viral defense pathway. In ovarian cancer (OC), DNMTis trigger cytosolic sensing of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) causing a type I interferon response and apoptosis. Knocking down dsRNA sensors TLR3 and MAVS reduces this response 2-fold and blocking(More)
Reversal of promoter DNA hypermethylation and associated gene silencing is an attractive cancer therapy approach. The DNA methylation inhibitors decitabine and azacitidine are efficacious for hematological neoplasms at lower, less toxic, doses. Experimentally, high doses induce rapid DNA damage and cytotoxicity, which do not explain the prolonged time to(More)
Epigenetic therapy is emerging as a potential therapy for solid tumors. To investigate its mechanism of action, we performed integrative expression and methylation analysis of 63 cancer cell lines (breast, colorectal, and ovarian) after treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacitidine (AZA). Gene Set Enrichment Analysis demonstrated(More)
Despite recent progress, the physiological role of Hippo signaling in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis remains poorly understood. Here we show that the Hippo pathway is functionally dispensable in virgin mammary glands but specifically required during pregnancy. In contrast to many other tissues, hyperactivation of YAP in mammary epithelia does(More)
BACKGROUND The reported operating characteristics of the plasma fibrin D-dimer level for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism vary widely. OBJECTIVE To determine the sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and clinical utility of the D-dimer for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, and to describe the effect of D-dimer assay method (enzyme-linked(More)
Mushrooms can be found in forests worldwide and have long been exploited as resources in developed economies because of their important agro-industrial, medicinal and commercial uses. For less developed countries, such as those within the Greater Mekong Subregion, wild harvesting and mushroom cultivation provides a much-needed alternative source of income(More)
Nicotine, a major toxic alkaloid in tobacco wastes, is degraded by bacteria, mainly via pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. Previously, we discovered a new hybrid of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways in Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33 and characterized its key enzyme 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine (HSP) hydroxylase. Here, we purified the nicotine(More)
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe, common birth defects that result from failure of neural tube closure, but their pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Histone modifications have an important role in gene regulation during fetal development. We therefore hypothesized that the human NTDs may be partly caused by an imbalance in(More)
PURPOSE In this study, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy techniques were used to examine whether versican, which is known to bind fibrillin-1, interacts with fibrillin-1 in the ciliary body and vitreous, and whether the versican in this complex binds to hyaluronan. METHODS The new polyclonal antibodies against(More)
While Factor V (FV) Leiden is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE), the incidence of VTE among FV Leiden carriers is uncertain. The objective of the study was to estimate the overall age-specific and pregnancy-related VTE incidence and the relative risk among FV Leiden carriers. In a community-based sample of 3424 south-eastern Minnesota(More)