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Digital system designs are the product of valuable effort and know-how. Their embodiments, from software and HDL program down to device-level netlist and mask data, represent carefully guarded intellectual property (IP). Hence, design methodologies based on IP reuse require new mechanisms to protect the rights of IP producers and owners. This paper(More)
Increasingly popular reuse-based design paradigms create a pressing need for authorship enforcement techniques that protect the intellectual property rights of designers. We develop the first intellectual property protection protocols for embedding design <italic>watermarks</italic> at the physical design level. We demonstrate that these protocols are(More)
A network of 32 or 64 connected neural masses, each representing a large population of interacting excitatory and inhibitory neurons and generating an electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography like output signal, was used to demonstrate how an interaction between dynamics and connectivity might explain the emergence of complex network features, in(More)
The decrease of the spectral radius, an important characterizer of network dynamics, by removing links is investigated. The minimization of the spectral radius by removing m links is shown to be an NP-complete problem, which suggests considering heuristic strategies. Several greedy strategies are compared, and several bounds on the decrease of the spectral(More)
In very deep-submicron VLSI, certain manufacturing steps &amp;mdash notably optical exposure, resist development and etch, chemical vapor deposition and chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP)&mdash have varying effects on device and interconnect features depending on local characteristics of the layout. To make these effects uniform and predictable, the layout(More)
The interplay between disease dynamics on a network and the dynamics of the structure of that network characterizes many real-world systems of contacts. A continuous-time adaptive susceptible-infectious-susceptible (ASIS) model is introduced in order to investigate this interaction, where a susceptible node avoids infections by breaking its links to its(More)
Defining an optimal protection strategy against viruses, spam propagation, or any other kind of contamination process is an important feature for designing new networks and architectures. In this paper, we consider decentralized optimal protection strategies when a virus is propagating over a network through an SIS epidemic process. We assume that each node(More)
Metagenome of gut microbes has been implicated in metabolism, immunity, and health maintenance of its host. However, in most of previous studies, the microbiota was sampled from feces instead of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In this study, we compared the microbial populations from feces at four different developmental stages and contents of four intestinal(More)
The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) is a consistent hallmark of ageing. Apoptosis plays an important role in muscle atrophy, and the intent of this study was to specify whether apoptosis is restricted to myofibre nuclei (myonuclei) or occurs in satellite cells or stromal cells of extracellular matrix (ECM). Sarcopenia in(More)