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Digital system designs are the product of valuable effort and know-how. Their embodiments, from software and HDL program down to device-level netlist and mask data, represent carefully guarded intellectual property (IP). Hence, design methodologies based on IP reuse require new mechanisms to protect the rights of IP producers and owners. This paper(More)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can lead to the creation of heterogeneous, response-limiting hypoxia during illumination, which may be controlled in part through illumination fluence rate. In the present report we consider (1) regional differences in hypoxia, vascular response, and cell kill as a function of tumor depth and (2) the role of fluence rate as a(More)
Increasingly popular reuse-based design paradigms create a pressing need for authorship enforcement techniques that protect the intellectual property rights of designers. We develop the first intellectual property protection protocols for embedding design <italic>watermarks</italic> at the physical design level. We demonstrate that these protocols are(More)
In very deep-submicron VLSI, certain manufacturing steps &amp;mdash notably optical exposure, resist development and etch, chemical vapor deposition and chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP)&mdash have varying effects on device and interconnect features depending on local characteristics of the layout. To make these effects uniform and predictable, the layout(More)
—Digital system designs are the product of valuable effort and know-how. Their embodiments, from software and hardware description language program down to device-level netlist and mask data, represent carefully guarded intellectual property (IP). Hence, design methodologies based on IP reuse require new mechanisms to protect the rights of IP producers and(More)
—We describe new, efficient algorithms for layout modification and phase assignment for dark field alternating-type phase shifting masks in the single exposure regime. We make the following contributions. First, we suggest new two-coloring and compaction approach that simultaneously optimizes layout and phase assignment which is based on planar embedding of(More)
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), structural and functional brain network organization is disturbed. However, many of the present network analysis measures require a priori assumptions and methodological choices that influence outcomes and interpretations. Graph spectral analysis (GSA) is a more direct algebraic method that describes network properties, which(More)
–It was recently found that cascading failures can cause the abrupt breakdown of a system of interdependent networks. Using the percolation method developed for single clustered networks by Newman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 058701 (2009)], we develop an analytical method for studying how clustering within the networks of a system of interdependent networks(More)