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Stripe rust-resistant wheat introgression line CH223 was developed by crossing the resistant partial amphiploid TAI7047 derived from Thinopyrum intermedium with susceptible cultivars. The resistance is effective against all the existing Chinese stripe rust races, including the most widely virulent and predominant pathotypes CYR32 and CYR33. Cytological(More)
The gut microbiota is of crucial importance for the host with considerable metabolic activity. Although great efforts have been made toward characterizing microbial diversity, measuring components' metabolic activity surprisingly hasn't kept pace. Here we combined pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes with in vivo stable isotope probing (Pyro-SIP) to(More)
The activation of the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway reduces water loss from plants challenged by drought stress. The effect of drought-induced ABA signaling on the defense and nutrition allocation of plants is largely unknown. We postulated that these changes can affect herbivorous insects. We studied the effects of drought on different feeding(More)
Powdery mildew (PM) is a very destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat-Thinopyrum ponticum introgression line CH7086 was shown to possess powdery mildew resistance possibly originating from Th. ponticum. Genomic in situ hybridization and molecular characterization of the alien introgression failed to identify alien chromatin. To study the(More)
Both resistance and tolerance, which are two strategies that plants use to limit biotic stress, are affected by the abiotic environment including atmospheric CO(2) levels. We tested the hypothesis that elevated CO(2) would reduce resistance (i.e., the ability to prevent damage) but enhance tolerance (i.e., the ability to regrow and compensate for damage(More)
Although the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) accelerates the accumulation of carbohydrates and increases the biomass and yield of C3 crop plants, it also reduces their nitrogen concentration. The consequent changes in primary and secondary metabolites affect the palatability of host plants and the feeding of herbivorous insects.(More)
The spatial diversity and distribution of AM fungi were investigated in three plots located in farming–pastoral zone, north China. The rhizospheres of Caragana korshinskii, Artemisia sphaerocephala and Salix psammophila were sampled and thirty AM fungal species belonging to five genera were isolated. The study demonstrated that AM fungal diversity and(More)
New diketopiperazines, epicoccins E-H (1-4) and diphenylalazines A (5) and B (6), have been isolated from the solid-substrate fermentation culture of the Cordyceps-colonizing fungus Epicoccum nigrum. The structures of 1-6 were determined primarily by NMR experiments, and the structure of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The absolute configurations(More)
Genetic algorithms are commonly used to solve combinatorial optimization problems. The implementation evolves using genetic operators (crossover, mutation, selection, etc.). Anyway, genetic algorithms like some other methods have parameters (population size, probabilities of crossover and mutation) which need to be tune or chosen. In this paper, our project(More)
The effects of elevated CO2 (750 ppm vs. 390 ppm) were evaluated on nitrogen (N) acquisition and assimilation by three Medicago truncatula genotypes, including two N-fixing-deficient mutants (dnf1-1 and dnf1-2) and their wild-type (Jemalong). The proportion of N acquisition from atmosphere and soil were quantified by (15)N stable isotope, and N(More)