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Angiotensin II infusion causes endothelial dysfunction by increasing NAD(P)H oxidase-mediated vascular superoxide production. However, it remains to be elucidated how in vivo angiotensin II treatment may alter the expression of the gp91(phox) isoforms and the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS III) and subsequent signaling events and whether, in(More)
Cardiovascular risk factors lead to enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase (XO), the mitochondrial electron-transport chain (ETC), and dysfunctional endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). When the capacity of antioxidant defense systems [e.g., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione(More)
BACKGROUND Estrogens can upregulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells by increasing eNOS promoter activity and enhancing the binding activity of the transcription factor Sp1. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes and wine, has been reported to act as an agonist at the estrogen receptor. Therefore, we(More)
In the vascular wall, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by several enzyme systems including NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase, uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. On the other hand, the vasculature is protected by antioxidant enzyme systems, including superoxide dismutases, catalase,(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) produced by the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is an antihypertensive, antithrombotic and anti-atherosclerotic molecule. Hypercholesterolemia leads to a reduction in vascular NO bioavailability. This is attributed to a dysfunction of the eNOS enzyme and a reduced eNOS activity. NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress leads to oxidation of(More)
The human enzyme paraoxonase-2 (PON2) has two functions, an enzymatic lactonase activity and the reduction of intracellular oxidative stress. As a lactonase, it dominantly hydrolyzes bacterial signaling molecule 3OC12 and may contribute to the defense against pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By its anti-oxidative effect, PON2 reduces cellular oxidative(More)
Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a polyphenol phytoalexin present in a variety of plant species and has been implicated to explain the health benefits of red wine. A wide range of health beneficial effects have been demonstrated for resveratrol in animal studies. In this review, we summarize the cardiovascular effects of resveratrol with(More)
Omic techniques have become key tools in the development of systems biology. As the holistic approaches underlying the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and new tendencies in Western medicine towards personalised medicine require in-depth knowledge of mechanisms of action and active compounds, the use of omic techniques is crucial for(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) produced by the endothelium is an important protective molecule in the vasculature. It is generated by the enzyme endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Similar to all NOS isoforms, functional eNOS transfers electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), via the flavins flavin adenine dinucleotide and flavin mononucleotide in(More)
BACKGROUND Histamine has a short-term, transient, stimulating effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity; however, long-term effects on eNOS have not been described yet. In addition, the vascular effect of histamine seems to depend critically on eNOS functionality. Therefore, we studied the effects of histamine on eNOS gene expression and(More)