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SCOPE Our aim was to investigate whether dietary wolfberry altered carotenoid metabolic gene expression and enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis in the retina of diabetic mice. METHODS AND RESULTS Six-week-old male db/db and wild-type mice were fed the control or wolfberry diets for 8 weeks. At study termination, liver and retinal tissues were collected for(More)
The heparan sulfate proteoglycan agrin and adhesion molecules are key players in the formation of neuronal and immune synapses that evolved for efficient communication at the sites of cell-cell contact. Transcytosis of infectious virus across epithelial cells upon contact between HIV-1-infected cells and the mucosal pole of the epithelial cells is one(More)
The constant heavy chain (CH1) domain affects antibody affinity and fine specificity, challenging the paradigm that only variable regions contribute to antigen binding. To investigate the role of the CH1 domain, we constructed IgA2 from the broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 2F5 IgG1, and compared 2F5 IgA2 and IgG binding affinity and functional activities. We(More)
Mucosa, comprising epithelial and dendritic cells, are the major sites for Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission. There, DCs can capture incoming HIV-1 and in turn transfer virus to CD4(+) T lymphocytes in a two-phase process, thereby initiating HIV-1 dissemination. We show that the glycosphingolipid Galactosyl Ceramide (GalCer), acting(More)
The membrane proximal region (MPR) of the transmembrane subunit, gp41, of the HIV envelope glycoprotein plays a critical role in HIV-1 infection of CD4+ target cells and CD4-independent mucosal entry. It contains continuous epitopes recognized by neutralizing IgG antibodies 2F5, 4E10 and Z13, and is therefore considered to be a promising target for vaccine(More)
In terms of background, the solution structure of monomeric peptide P1 (residues 649-683), located in the conserved membrane proximal region (MPER) of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp41, is first reported here in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles. P1 is the minimal MPER region that permits interaction with the mucosal galactosyl ceramide HIV-receptor; it(More)
The peptide of HIV-1 envelope gp41 (a.a 628-683), referred to herein as P5, contains P1, a conserved galactose-specific lectin domain for binding the mucosal HIV-1-receptor, galactosyl ceramide (GalCer), as shown earlier, and a potential calcium-binding site (a.a 628-648). P1 contains contiguous epitopes recognized by the broadly neutralizing antibodies(More)
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