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The importance of microbial facultative endosymbionts to insects is increasingly being recognized, but our understanding of how the fitness effects of infection are distributed across symbiont taxa is limited. In the pea aphid, some of the seven known species of facultative symbionts influence their host's resistance to natural enemies, including parasitoid(More)
Many insects harbour facultative endosymbiotic bacteria, often more than one type at a time. These symbionts can have major effects on their hosts' biology, which may be modulated by the presence of other symbiont species and by the host's genetic background. We investigated these effects by transferring two sets of facultative endosymbionts (one(More)
OBJECTIVE To use proteomic techniques, including two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), Western blot, and mass spectrometry, to screen and identify proteins that were expressed differently in patients with endometriosis versus normal controls. DESIGN First, we aimed to find a difference in the way serum and eutopic endometrial proteins were expressed in(More)
Artemether, an efficacious antimalarial drug, effectively prevents patent schistosome infections and morbidity, as established in laboratory models and in clinical trials. In view of concern about the potential long-term toxicity, rats were treated orally with 80 mg/kg artemether once every 2 weeks for 5 months. After the final treatment, routine blood test(More)
The aim of this study is to investigate the remission rate of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China and identify its potential determinants. A multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2009 to January 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews of the rheumatology outpatients in 28 tertiary hospitals in China. The remission rates were(More)
Recently, it was discovered that high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1) acts as a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine that is released into the extracellular milieu. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins play an important role in cytokine signaling. Some investigators have reported preferential activation of STAT1, and(More)
The high temperature requirement A1 (HTRA1) is a potent protease involved in many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the regulatory mechanisms that control HTRA1 expression need to be determined. In this study, we demonstrated that IFN-γ significantly inhibited the basal and LPS-induced HTRA1 expression in fibroblasts and macrophages,(More)
The canonical action of the p85α regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is to associate with the p110α catalytic subunit to allow stimuli-dependent activation of the PI3K pathway. We elucidate a p110α-independent role of homodimerized p85α in the positive regulation of PTEN stability and activity. p110α-free p85α homodimerizes via two(More)
PURPOSE A critical step of protein synthesis involves the liberation of the mRNA cap-binding translation initiation factor eIF4E from 4EBP inhibitory binding proteins, and its engagement to the scaffolding protein eIF4G. eIF4E is a candidate target for cancer therapy because it is overexpressed or activated in many types of tumors and has tumorigenic(More)
Protein extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is challenging due to extensive molecular crosslinking that occurs upon formalin fixation. Reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) is a high-throughput technology, which can detect changes in protein levels and protein functionality in numerous tissue and cell sources. It has been used to(More)