The Ras-GRF1 exchange factor has regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity for H-Ras and Rac1 through separate domains. Both H-Ras and Rac1 activation have been linked to synaptic plasticity and thus could contribute to the function of Ras-GRF1 in neuronal signal transduction pathways that underlie learning and memory. We defined the… (More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by a progressive degeneration of motor neurons. The cause of sporadic ALS is not known, but 1-2% of all cases are familial and caused by mutations in the copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene. Transgenic SOD1 mice serve as a transgenic mouse model for these cases. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor… (More)
The Ras-GRF1 exchange factor, which is regulated by increases in intracellular calcium and the release of G beta gamma subunits from heterotrimeric G proteins, plays a critical role in the activation of neuronal Ras. Activation of G protein-coupled receptors stimulates an increase in the phosphorylation of Ras-GRF1 at certain serine residues. The first of… (More)
Self-balancing control is the basis for applications of two-wheeled robots. In order to improve the self-balancing of two-wheeled robots, we propose a hierarchical reinforcement learning algorithm for controlling the balance of two-wheeled robots. After describing the subgoals of hierarchical reinforcement learning, we extract features for subgoals, define… (More)
Selective inhibition of function-specific β-GlcNAcase has great potential in terms of drug design and biological research. The symmetrical bis-naphthalimide M-31850 was previously obtained by screening for specificity against human glycoconjugate-lytic β-GlcNAcase. Using protein-ligand co-crystallization and molecular docking, we designed an unsymmetrical… (More)
The title compound, C(11)H(11)BrClN(3)O(2), contains two mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit in which the dihedral angles between the pyrazole and pyridine rings are 30.0 (2) and 22.3 (2)°.
In the title compound, C(19)H(14)Cl(2)F(3)N(5)O(2), which shows insecticidal activity, the dihedral angle between the pyrazole and pyridine rings is 68.15 (16)°. In the crystal structure, the mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and an intra-molecular N-H⋯O inter-action also occurs. The F atoms of the -CF(3) group are disordered over two… (More)
Gene therapy for neurodegenerative diseases may utilize the expression of neurotrophic factors because of their potential to promote survival and regeneration of injured neuronal cells. Increasing numbers of these factors are being considered for gene transfer, but their specificity and efficacy in neuroprotection are greatly variable. The major aims of… (More)